2 REASONING IN SCIENCE (and QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS) Scientific method- is the way scientists learn and study the world around them Scientific method starts with asking a questions and then trying to come up with the answers These questions need to be able to be answered by observing and gathering evidence, measureable in some way Observations- gathering information by using your senses Valid- truthful and confirmed, correct and accurate
3 EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE Hypothesis- educated guess Experiment must use controls that are quantitative (numbers, not emotions). Science needs both the hypothesis and results to move forward. Scientists examine the data and develop newer ideas. Data- facts, figures, and evidence gathered through observations This process leads to more observations and tweaking of the hypotheses.
4 THE WHOLE PROCESSHypothesis- a statement that uses a observations to make a guess without experimental evidence Theory- uses observations and has experimental evidence, flexible enough to be modified if new data/evidence introduced Law- stands the test of time, without change, confirmed over and over, creates true predictions for different situations, is uniform and universal Models have some experimental validity or is a scientific concept that is only accurate under limited situations. Models do not work or apply under all situations in all environments.
5 QUESTION 1: The scientific method was developed to help scientists organize the process of solving problems. True FalseTRUEScientific method is an objective step-by-step way of looking at natural eventsUse these methods and procedures to explain and answer questionsScientific method can be used to prove or disprove statements made by othersRequires observable and quantifiable evidence and data.
6 QUESTION 2: Which of these is not a step of the scientific method? Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion Plagiary PlagiaryStart with a problem or questionThen develop a hypothesis that offers an answer to the questionDevelop and perform an experimentRecord your resultsAnalyze results and develop a conclusion that answers the original question
7 QUESTION 3: Disorganized Which of these words would you NOT associate with the scientific method? Disorganized Organized Data ControlDisorganizedThe scientific method is an organized way to help scientists (and everyone) solve problemsAs you complete an experiment that tests variables and has controls, you record data and results.
8 QUESTION 4: An Educated Guess A hypothesis is A Random Thought An Answer An Educated Guess An ExperimentAn Educated GuessA hypothesis is an educated guess that offers a possible answer to a problemAn experiment is developed to prove the accuracy of the hypothesis
9 QUESTION 5: Number of Fruit Flies Which of these would be called results? Number of Fruit Flies Counting Fruit Flies Seeing Fruit Flies on an Apple Wondering Why a Fruit Fly was BornNumber of Fruit FliesThe number of fruit flies would be the only results. The other choices are all steps in the process (Hypothesis, Experiment, Observation).
10 QUESTION 6: Design an Experiment What do you do to test a hypothesis? Guess Create a Spreadsheet with Data Publish a Scientific Paper Design an ExperimentDesign an ExperimentConduct a series of procedures to test any hypothesisDeveloped experiment uses variables (changing factors) and controls (unchanging examples)
11 QUESTION 7: A control group is used as a comparison to the group where things (variables) are changing. True FalseTRUEThe control group is a group that is not experimented onThe bread without water is the control groupThey are used as a baseline or static group in the experiment
12 QUESTION 8: An independent variable is a factor that changes because of procedures conducted on the dependent variable. True FalseFALSEA dependent variable (responding variable) is a factor that may change because of what is done to the independent variable (manipulated variable)independent variable (manipulated variable) is the variable you change on purpose
13 QUESTION 9: Experiments are usually conducted one time and by one team to speed up the scientific process. True FalseFALSEExperiments are performed hundreds to times before a scientific statement is accepted as a truth.The experiment would be performed using the same proceduresTo prove the hypothesis, the other testing team must be able to generate the same results.
14 QUESTION 10: Experiments often test multiple variables. True False Experiments test for one variableIf you have multiple variables you do not know what caused the difference
15 Logical ReasoningArguments- statements Logic shows the relationships between the parts of an idea and the whole idea (example if you understand how animals interact with each other then you are able to better understand the whole ecosystem)Scientific method is a rational, logical thought process that is used to figure out facts and truthsAll of the answers must be able to be provedIf multiple scientists do the experiment and the answer is different, someone did something wrong and everyone starts all over again.
16 Inductive Reasoning It is in two parts: Start with specifics and come up with a theory. That's deductive reasoningWhen you apply it to new areas, it is inductive reasoningYou organize data into categories based on what they have in commonIn inductive reasoning your conclusions have more information than the facts you useYou start with dozens of observed examples, take a leap, and assume millions of possible examplesIf the conclusion is true, then new assumptions are true
17 Other VocabularyScientific inquiry- refers to the ways scientists investigate the world and explain them based on evidence they gatherVariables- factors that can change in an experimentControlled experiment- only one variable is manipulatedManipulated variable- independent variableResponding variable- dependent variableControl- the group that is not manipulated or changedOperational definition- a statement that describes how to measure a variable or define a termCommunicating- sharing of ideas and findings through writings or speaking