The Need For Psychological Science Common Sense and Intuition What is common sense? How does it effect intuition? Can we trust our intuition?
The Need For Psychological Science Hindsight Bias I-Knew-It-All–Along Phenomenon Happens when one learns a fact and it immediately sounds like common sense In your notes, write down an example of a time when hindsight bias happened to you. (school appropriate) Can psychology overturn common sense ideas?
The Need For Psychological Science Overconfidence Unscramble these words rvocnodefceeni= rmaacei= arnbi= How does overconfidence relate to hindsight bias? How can we avoid overconfidence? Is it avoidable?
Attitude is everything The scientific attitude: Requires types of attitude 1. Curiosity Why is curiosity important? 2. Skepticism What do you mean? How do you know? 3. Humility Why is humility important? A1+A2+A3= Critical Thinking
The Scientific Method A self-correcting method process for asking questions and observing nature answer Steps: 1. Ask a question 2. Research the question 3. Refine your question 4. Develop a hypothesis (theory) 5. Choose a method 6. Test the hypothesis 7. Analyzes the results 8. Communicate your results
Good Science Theories Hypotheses Research and Observations Refine and Generate Theory What is a Theory? An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations Good Theories Consist of: 1. Organizing and linking observed facts 2. Implying hypotheses that offer testable predictions and, sometimes, practical applications.
Good Science In your notes, 1. Develop and original theory 2. Develop a hypothesis A testable prediction
Methods Qualitative.VS. Quantitative Qualitative: data gathered by statements, experiences, impressions. Think Words Quantitative: Data gathered and translated into numbers Think Numbers Hybrid Studies: combine quantitative and qualitative data
Methods The Case Study One of the oldest forms of psychological research In depth studies of people in the hope of revealing universal principles What are some case studies you are aware of? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this type of study? Example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfOlPK2P_G8 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfOlPK2P_G8
Methods The survey A technique used to gather self-reported attitudes and behaviors Used in descriptive and correlational studies
Methods Steps to constructing a survey Develop a Question Select a population Choose a sample type Construct the survey Send it to population
Methods Asking the right questions Ask Neutral Questions Neutral questions allow respondents to express their opinion, without bias Wording Effects: The words you use can change the outcome of the question Ex: 27% of people disapprove of “government censorship” of sex and violence. However, 66% approve of more restrictions
Methods Sampling Key is a survey is randomization False Consensus: The tendency to overestimate the extent to which other share our beliefs and behaviors Population: Every one in a particular group Random Sample: a sample that represents the population. Everyone in the target population has the same chance to be surveyed
Methods Naturalistic Observation: Observing and recording behavior in a naturally occurring situations without trying to control or manipulate the situation Does not explain behavior it describes it https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5Q6-hh49mU https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k5Q6-hh49mU
Correlation Correlation happens when two traits or behaviors accompany one another Shown using scatter plots
Correlation Correlation Coefficient A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors very together R=+.78
Correlation Misreading Correlation Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause and effect relationship, but does not prove causation Illusionary correlation: a perceived non existent correlation Ex: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2I1n8- zpvMIhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2I1n8- zpvMI
Experimentation To discern cause and effect psychologists experiment Experimenters can manipulate one or more factors to determine cause and effect The experimenter manipulates independent variables to observe a dependent variable (the behavior or mental process) Uses random assignment to minimize differences between the two groups (the control and experimental condition) Ex: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ps4pRPYJWOohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ps4pRPYJWOo