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Copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Planning and Grouping Strategies for Special Learners This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Planning and Grouping Strategies for Special Learners This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright."— Presentation transcript:

1 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Planning and Grouping Strategies for Special Learners This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Chapter 7

2 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon The Planning Process Preplanning (advance preparation) Interactive Planning (monitoring students & adapting plans to meet their needs) Postplanning (follow-up and reflection)

3 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Factors that Influence Planning Teacher related factors You as a planner for all students in the class Student related factors Who students are, how they learn, and how they respond Topic related factors What you are teaching Environment-related factors The context in which you teach

4 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon ReflActive Planning Process SMARTER – Select – Map – Analyze – Reach – Teach – Evaluate – Reevaluate and revise

5 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Community of Learners How can I nurture the community of learners? How can I include everyone in the learning process? How can I determine strengths/resources of everyone? How can I circumvent/compensate for limitations of participants?

6 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Course Launching Develop Rapport with students Communicate course goals and expectations Describe classroom routines and procedures Generate enthusiasm and interest

7 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Target Students Focus on students’ individual needs Keep students in mind when planning Identifying target students….a practical, realistic technique that helps make teaching more sensitive to diversity.

8 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Course Maintenance and Closure Revisits course map to make sure everything is on track Make revisions as necessary Evaluate the course and discuss issues related to learning community and how well goals were achieved

9 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Establishing the Big Picture

10 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Monitoring Student Learning Informal member checks Think-Pair-Share Collaborative open- note quizzes

11 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Same Ability Grouping—Criticisms Same-ability grouping can “widen the gap between high and low achievers (Slavin, 1987) Restrict friendship choices (Hallinan & Sorensen, 1985) Lower the motivation and self-esteem of low-achieving students (Oakes, et al., 1991) Quality of instruction is frequently inferior (Goodlad, 1984; Hiebert, 1983)

12 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon To Overcome Criticisms: Best quality instruction to ALL Students Engage in multiple grouping formats Ongoing Progress monitoring and regrouping students Opportunities for ALL members of class to work together throughout the day

13 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Multiple Grouping Formats No one “best” grouping pattern BUT – Small group sizes ARE associated with improved outcomes for students especially for students with disabilities (Elbaum, Vaughn, et al., 1999)

14 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Principles for Multiple Grouping Formats (Unsworth, 1984; Vaughn, Hughes & Moody & Elbaum, 2001) No permanent groups Groups are designed to meet students’ learning needs Whole class instruction is not the dominant grouping format

15 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon More Principles of Multiple Grouping Formats Students are assigned to groups based on – Their learning needs – Purpose of instruction – Other goals as considered by the teacher Students are occasionally provided instruction one-on-one Students are taught to work in small cooperative groups as well as teacher-led ones

16 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Things to Consider When Planning Multiple Grouping Structures Best group size for lesson Best group size for follow-up activities Best composition of learners Materials that will be needed Teacher-led groups, student-led or cooperative Room set-up for grouping plan Ensuring quick and smooth transitions Issues related to students’ behavior and social needs

17 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Whole-Class Grouping Allows for Building classroom community Establishing classroom routines Introducing new units of study, skills and concepts Conducting whole-class discussions Developing common experiences Listening to guest speakers Viewing educational videos

18 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Small Groups Allow for Conducting mini-lessons on an as-needed basis Completing a project Preparing a presentation for the class Completing a follow-up assignment Practicing new skills Discussing a reading assignment

19 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Group Students according to: Interest Skills to be learned English proficiency Level of basic skills Prior knowledge Student-selection Teacher assignment

20 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Cooperative Learning Groups (Goor & Schwenn, 1993) Working together towards a common goal: – Teams are formed to maximize heterogeneity – Positive interdependence through shared goals/rewards – Establishing management systems to maximize learning – Room is arranged to facilitate small-group activity – Students are taught skills necessary to cooperate – Structure of each activity is chosen to match the goals of the lesson.

21 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Cooperative Learning and Students with Disabilities (Gillies & Ashman, 2000; Goor & Schwenn, 1993; Pomplun, 1997) Explain how to behave Establish ways students can maximize learning and are not penalized for what they can’t do Assign roles and groups carefully, and provide clear guidelines Prepare others to support learning for all members of the group Develop signals for students who have difficulty staying on-task Monitor students consistently

22 copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Monitoring Student Progress Establish benchmarks Identify instructional goals and plan instruction Group students to meet instructional goals and needs

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