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What cooperative learning is Students working together to achieve shared goals to maximize their own and each other’s learning, promote positive social.

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Presentation on theme: "What cooperative learning is Students working together to achieve shared goals to maximize their own and each other’s learning, promote positive social."— Presentation transcript:


2 What cooperative learning is Students working together to achieve shared goals to maximize their own and each other’s learning, promote positive social interaction and increase academic achievement What cooperative learning is not Students sitting quietly in straight rows listening to the teacher talk where the teacher assumes all of the responsibility for student learning. Group projects where one student does all of the work outside the classroom.

3  Task structures – the way lessons are organized  Goal structures – amount of interdependence required of students  Reward structures – the way rewards are achieved

4  Students work in teams to master academic objectives  Teams are made up of high, average and low achievers  Teams include a racial, cultural and gender mix of students  Reward systems are oriented toward the group rather than the individual

5  Academic achievement  Acceptance of diversity  Social skill development

6  Higher achievement  Increased retention  Increased positive heterogeneous relationships  Increased intrinsic motivation  Higher self-esteem  Increased social support  More on-task behavior  Better attitudes toward teachers  Better attitudes toward school  More integration of disabled students

7  Simplification of classroom management  Encouragement of student responsibility  Increased time-on-task  Teaching more at a faster rate  Assumption of the role of facilitator rather than purveyor of knowledge

8  Dewey – democratic procedures  Allport – equality in the classroom  Slavin – competitive cooperative learning approaches (STAD & Jigsaw)  Johnson & Johnson – elements of cooperative learning  Sharan – group investigation approach  Kagan – structural approach

9  Positive interdependence – students believe they are in it together  Individual accountability – every member has to be accountable for learning  Face-to-face interaction – students have to be able to interact  Interpersonal and small group skills – time needs to built into the lesson for teaching social skills  Group processing - time needs to be built into the lesson for groups to assess how well they are working together

10  Structure how to teach social skills by identifying social as well as academic goals  Decide on group size (2-6 members)  Determine grouping (homogeneous or heterogeneous)  Structure face-to-face interaction by determining the arrangement of desks or tables

11  Structure individual accountability by assigning roles and responsibilities and planning how to assess individual performance  Structure positive interdependence by giving one set of materials and asking for one product  Structure group processing by planning how groups will evaluate their abilities to work as a group

12  Leader  Reader  Scribe  Presenter  Materials handler  Time Keeper  Praiser  Reporter  Timekeeper  Organizer  Questioner  Summarizer  Noise Monitor  Encourager

13  Students Team Achievement Division  Jigsaw  Teams/ Games/ Tournament  Group Investigation  Structural Approach  Think-Pair-Share  Numbered Heads Together  Three-Step Interview

14  Teaching – Teacher presents the information to be learned  Teams – Students are place into heterogeneous groups  Reading – Students receive expert topics and read assigned material to locate information  Expert Group Discussion – Students with the same expert topics meet to discuss them in expert groups  Team Report – Experts return to their teams to teach their topics to their teammates  Test – Students take individual quizzes covering all topics  Team Recognition – Team scores are computed

15  Teaching – the teacher provides information to be learned  Team Study – students study together in teams using a structured approach  Test – students take individual quizzes  Team Recognition – team scores are calculated

16  Teaching – teacher provides the information to be learned  Team Study – students study together in heterogeneous groups  Tournament – students compete in homogeneous groups  Team Recognition – team scores are calculated

17  Step 1 – Students select specific subtopics within a general problem area.  Step 2 – Students and the teacher plan specific learning procedures, tasks and goals consistent with the subtopics of the problem  Step 3 – Students implement the plan  Step 4 – Students analyze and evaluate information obtained and plan how to summarize for the presentation  Step 5 – Groups present the topics studied  Step 6 – Students and teacher evaluate each group’s contribution to the work of the class as a whole

18  Step 1 – Students listen while teacher poses a questions  Step 2 – Students are given time to think of a response  Step 3 – Students are asked to pair with a neighbor and discuss their responses  Step 4 – Students are invited to share their responses with the class * Time limits are set for each step

19  Step 1 – Individual team members are numbered one to four  Step 2 – After teaching a concept, the teacher asks a question and announces a time limit for discussion  Step 3 – Students put their heads together and process the question  Step 4 – The teacher calls as number and students with that number may be asked to respond to the question representing their teams.

20 Students are placed into two pairs in each group. The teacher then poses a question  Step 1 – A interviews B and C interviews D  Step 2 – B interviews A and D interviews C  Step 3 - A shares what he/she learned from B in the interview followed by B, C & D in roundrobin fashion

21  Adjust the group size to suit the activity  Accept a higher noise level in the classroom  Experiment with different group sizes and patterns  Provide rules for group work  Promote involvement by all students with student roles

22  Clarifying aims and establishing set  Presenting information verbally or in text  Organizing students into study groups  Assisting team work and study  Providing recognition and evaluating group processing

23  Task interdependence  Social skills  Sharing  Participation skills  Group skills  Team building  Communication skills

24  Compromising – coming to an agreement by meeting half-way or giving in to other group members  Encouraging - showing understanding and helping others feel a part of the group  Gate-keeping – giving everyone a chance to speak in the group, checking to see that no one is overlooked  Clarifying and Elaborating – interpreting information or building on information from another group member  Summarizing – recapitulating and pulling shared knowledge and information  Contributing Ideas – offering ideas or opinions  Listening – paying attention to others when they are speaking

25  A cooperative context must be established  Cooperative skills have to be directly taught  Group members determine whether the skills are learned and internalizef  The earlier students are taught social skills, the better

26  Choose an approach  Choose appropriate content  Form student teams  Develop materials  Plan for orienting students to tasks and roles  Plan for the use of time and space

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