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Exceptionality and Special EducationChapter 1 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Getting Oriented to Exceptionality and Special EducationThere is no single accepted theory of normal development, so relatively few definite statements can be made about exceptional learners. Reasons for optimism Importance of abilities Disability versus handicap Disability versus inability Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Educational Definition of Exceptional LearnersExceptional learners are those who require special education if they are to reach their full human potential. Diversity of characteristics Need for special education Assessment must show that learner is unable to make satisfactory progress without special services. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 3
Prevalence of Exceptional LearnersApproximately 10 in every 100 students receive special education. Over 6 million students in the U.S. receive special education services. There have been changes in prevalence for certain disabilities. There are high-incidence and low-incidence categories. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 4
Definition of Special EducationSpecial education means specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student. Possible forms of special education: Special materials Specialized teaching techniques Specialized equipment and/or facilities Related services Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 6
Providing Special EducationLevels of integration How and how much the student differs from average students Resources available in the school and community Least Restrictive Environment Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Continuum of Placement OptionsFig. 1.1 Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009Teacher’s Roles Relationship between general and special education Radical reformers recommend that special education be eliminated as a separate, identifiable part of education. No clear distinction between “at risk” students and those with disabilities Controversy about inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009Approximate Percentages of Students with Disabilities in Various Placement Options Fig. 1.3 Source: Data from the annual reports of the U.S. Department of Education to Congress on Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Expectations for All EducatorsMaximum effort to accommodate individual needs Evaluate academic abilities and disabilities Refer for evaluation Participate in eligibility conferences Participate in writing individualized education programs Communicate with parents or guardians Participate in due process hearings Collaborate with other professionals Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 8
Expectations for Special EducatorsAcademic instruction of students with learning problems Management of serious behavior problems Evaluating technological advances Knowledge of special education law Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 9
History and Origins of Special Education1800s: “normalization” and physicians Itard and Séguin Individualized instruction Sequence of educational tasks Stimulation of senses Arrangement of environment Reward for correct performance Functional skills Belief that every child should be educated to the greatest extent possible Howe and Gallaudet Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 10
Development of the ProfessionEmergence of psychology and sociology Study of learning and development of mental tests Importance of families and communities 1922: Elizabeth Farrell and the Council for Exceptional Children Every student should have an appropriate education and receive necessary health and social services. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 11
Parents and Professional Organizations1950: Parent organizations Informal group for parents Information regarding services and resources Structure for obtaining needed services ARC National Association for Gifted Children Learning Disabilities Association, etc. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 12
Legislation and LitigationPL — Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) IDEA — Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990) IDEA Amendments (1997, 2004) ADA — Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Major Provisions of IDEAIdentification Free, Appropriate, Public Education (FAPE) Due process Parent/guardian surrogate consultation Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Individualized Education Program (IEP) Nondiscriminatory evaluation Confidentiality Personnel development, inservice Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009Trends in Legislation More federal deregulation Too little federal funding No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) Expectations about standardized testing and achievement Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 13
Individualized Education for Students with DisabilitiesIndividualized Education Program (IEP) All teachers must be trained to understand its purpose and function General educators should see IEPs as an opportunity to solicit program supports Teachers must work more closely with parents Teachers must balance students’ needs for achievement in the general curriculum with their need for specialized curricula Hearing officers and courts are permitted to determine procedural violations of the IEP Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) For infants and toddlers with disabilities Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Human Resources Administration in Education
Chapter 1 Highlights (Hallahan & Kauffman)
Working with Parents of a Child with Disabilities Perry C. Hanavan, Au.D.
Policies, Practices, and Programs
Literacy for All: NCLB, RTI, and Diversity in the Literacy Program
Chapter 2 Planning and Providing Special Education Services
- Where is the gap?. Litigation & Legislation Earlier, many students with disabilities were being excluded or participated in inferior educational programs.
The Role of the Educator in the IEP Process. A Little History… The 70’s 1. Public Law : Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
1 The History of Special Education Law Yell / The Law and Special Education, Second Edition Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Teaching Exceptional, Diverse and At- Risk Students in the General Education Classroom Third Edition Sharon Vaughn Candace.
Parents and Families Chapter 4
Copyright © 2007 by Allyn & Bacon Teaching Exceptional, Diverse and At- Risk Students in the General Education Classroom Fourth Edition Sharon Vaughn Candace.
Legal and Ethical Issues
The Personnel and Procedures of Special Education Chapter 2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under.
Copyright © 2007 by Allyn & Bacon Chapter 2 Collaborating and Coordinating with Other Professionals and Family This multimedia product and its contents.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-1 Chapter 2 Planning and Providing Special Education Services.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Course: Required Textbook: Special Education: Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals, IDEA 2004 Update Edition.
Course: Required Textbook: Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education, 11 th Edition by Daniel P. Hallahan, James M. Kauffman, and Paige.
Integration, Inclusion, and Support of Positive Outcomes
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