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Exceptionality and Special Education

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1 Exceptionality and Special Education
Chapter 1 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

2 Getting Oriented to Exceptionality and Special Education
There is no single accepted theory of normal development, so relatively few definite statements can be made about exceptional learners. Reasons for optimism Importance of abilities Disability versus handicap Disability versus inability Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

3 Educational Definition of Exceptional Learners
Exceptional learners are those who require special education if they are to reach their full human potential. Diversity of characteristics Need for special education Assessment must show that learner is unable to make satisfactory progress without special services. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 3

4 Prevalence of Exceptional Learners
Approximately 10 in every 100 students receive special education. Over 6 million students in the U.S. receive special education services. There have been changes in prevalence for certain disabilities. There are high-incidence and low-incidence categories. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 4

5 Definition of Special Education
Special education means specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student. Possible forms of special education: Special materials Specialized teaching techniques Specialized equipment and/or facilities Related services Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 6

6 Providing Special Education
Levels of integration How and how much the student differs from average students Resources available in the school and community Least Restrictive Environment Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

7 Continuum of Placement Options
Fig. 1.1 Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

8 Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Teacher’s Roles Relationship between general and special education Radical reformers recommend that special education be eliminated as a separate, identifiable part of education. No clear distinction between “at risk” students and those with disabilities Controversy about inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

9 Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Approximate Percentages of Students with Disabilities in Various Placement Options Fig. 1.3 Source: Data from the annual reports of the U.S. Department of Education to Congress on Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

10 Expectations for All Educators
Maximum effort to accommodate individual needs Evaluate academic abilities and disabilities Refer for evaluation Participate in eligibility conferences Participate in writing individualized education programs Communicate with parents or guardians Participate in due process hearings Collaborate with other professionals Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 8

11 Expectations for Special Educators
Academic instruction of students with learning problems Management of serious behavior problems Evaluating technological advances Knowledge of special education law Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 9

12 History and Origins of Special Education
1800s: “normalization” and physicians Itard and Séguin Individualized instruction Sequence of educational tasks Stimulation of senses Arrangement of environment Reward for correct performance Functional skills Belief that every child should be educated to the greatest extent possible Howe and Gallaudet Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 10

13 Development of the Profession
Emergence of psychology and sociology Study of learning and development of mental tests Importance of families and communities 1922: Elizabeth Farrell and the Council for Exceptional Children Every student should have an appropriate education and receive necessary health and social services. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 11

14 Parents and Professional Organizations
1950: Parent organizations Informal group for parents Information regarding services and resources Structure for obtaining needed services ARC National Association for Gifted Children Learning Disabilities Association, etc. Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 12

15 Legislation and Litigation
PL — Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) IDEA — Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990) IDEA Amendments (1997, 2004) ADA — Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

16 Major Provisions of IDEA
Identification Free, Appropriate, Public Education (FAPE) Due process Parent/guardian surrogate consultation Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Individualized Education Program (IEP) Nondiscriminatory evaluation Confidentiality Personnel development, inservice Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

17 Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009
Trends in Legislation More federal deregulation Too little federal funding No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) Expectations about standardized testing and achievement Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009 13

18 Individualized Education for Students with Disabilities
Individualized Education Program (IEP) All teachers must be trained to understand its purpose and function General educators should see IEPs as an opportunity to solicit program supports Teachers must work more closely with parents Teachers must balance students’ needs for achievement in the general curriculum with their need for specialized curricula Hearing officers and courts are permitted to determine procedural violations of the IEP Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) For infants and toddlers with disabilities Copyright © Pearson Allyn & Bacon 2009

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