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copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Chapter 13 Facilitating Writing This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Current Trends in Writing Curriculum and Instruction Student-Centered model Importance of early writing experiences Greater allotment of time to writing instruction Teaching the mechanics of communicating effectively through writing
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Writing as a Process Formulate message in your head Organize ideas in a logical fashion Think about the reader Choose words carefully Select words to convey meaning succinctly Attend to spelling, capitalization and punctuation Consider appearance of final product
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Writing is… An interactive process A strategic process An attempt to convey meaning A process of constructing meaning A socially mediated learning activity
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Ideas for a Physical Environment that Promotes Writing Portable Word Processors Computers Slantboards Paper with raised lines Adaptive grips for pencils/pens Word cards Pocket thesaurus/dictionary
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Strategies for a Writing Workshop
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Prewriting Identify the intended audience State a purpose for writing Decide on a format
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Revising and Editing Make sure meaning is clear and message is understood AOK Strategy – MOK – POK – SOK – WOK – NOK
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Revising for Adolescents with Disabilities Compare and diagnose Tactic Operations Compare Diagnose and Operate
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Sharing Strategies The “author’s chair” (Graves & Hansen, 1983) TAG Strategy – Tell what you like – Ask questions – Give suggestions Conferencing – Describe problem areas – Respond to questions
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Strategies for Writing PLEASE – Pick the topic – List the information – Evaluate – Activate – Supply supporting details – End TREE – Topic sentence – Reasons to support – Examine results – Ending or conclusion SCOREA – Select topic – Create categories – Obtain reference tools – Read and Take Notes – Evenly organize information – Apply writing process
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Improving Spelling Skills (Gordon, Vaughn & Schumm, 1993) Error imitation and modeling Unit size Modality Computer-Assisted Instruction Peer Tutoring Study Techniques
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Instruction and Practice Strategy (Graham & Freeman, 1986) Say the word Write and say the word Check the word Trace and say the word Write the word from memory Check the word If incorrect, repeat steps 1-5
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Spelling Instruction Exposure to common word patterns Teach in small units Provide sufficient practice and feedback Select appropriate words Maintain previously learned words Teach for transfer of learning Motivate students to spell correctly Include dictionary training
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Handwriting Skills Instruction Direct instruction Variety of techniques or methods Teach within context of writing Self and peer evaluation Modeling
copyright (c) 2003 Allyn & Bacon Teaching Handwriting Skills Focus on legibility and fluency – Posture – Pencil grip – Paper position Compare and contrast letters Physical prompts and cues Specific reinforcement and corrective feedback Self-verbalization
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