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Literacy for All: NCLB, RTI, and Diversity in the Literacy Program

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Presentation on theme: "Literacy for All: NCLB, RTI, and Diversity in the Literacy Program"— Presentation transcript:

1 Literacy for All: NCLB, RTI, and Diversity in the Literacy Program
Chapter 2 Literacy for All: NCLB, RTI, and Diversity in the Literacy Program This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter 2 Anticipation Guide

3 Teaching Literacy to All Students: The Role of NCLB
Impact of NCLB Reading skills and overall academic performance have improved Scientifically Based Literacy Instruction Key elements are phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension

4 Teaching Literacy to All Students: The Role of RTI
Response to Intervention (RTI) Students’ ability to learn is evaluated by noting how well they respond to instruction of varying degrees of intensity. Universal Screening Tier I: Improving the General Program Students are provided with the best possible general literacy program, instruction is differentiated, and progress is monitored at least 3 times a year. Tiers II and III: Intervention Includes 20% of students 15% need only Tier II, 5% need Tier III also

5 Teaching Literacy to All Students: The Role of RTI
RTI and English Language Learners Problem-Solving Approach versus Standard Protocol Problem solving Standard protocol Monitoring Progress Collaboration Impact of RTI on Your Teaching

6 Diversity in the Classroom: Providing for the Literacy Needs of All Students
English Language Learners Provide a Secure Environment Build Language Stages Coping Strategies Provide Comprehensible Input Modeling Running commentary Expansion Redirect

7 Diversity in the Classroom: Providing for the Literacy Needs of All Students
Build Academic Language Language skills (big and small words) Thinking skills of analyzing, explaining, inferring, and organizing Appropriate grammar Background knowledge Assess Students’ Academic Language and Background Building Academic Language Benefits All Students Stages of Second-Language Acquisition

8 Stages of Second-Language Acquisition
Teaching Questions Preproduction What, who, where, yes/no Early Production What, who, where, either/or Speech Emergence What, who, where, when Intermediate What, who, where, when, why Advanced Continue to provide support

9 Diversity in the Classroom: Providing for the Literacy Needs of All Students
Use cooperative learning and peer tutoring strategies Use print Intentional, systematic instruction Focus on academic language Academic English instruction should be part of the core curriculum Teach vocabulary constantly

10 Students at Risk Economically disadvantaged students
Culturally diverse students Students with learning disabilities Students with attention deficit disorder Students with intellectual disabilities Slow learners Students with language and speech disorders

11 Economically Disadvantaged Students
Principles for teaching economically disadvantaged children: Build background Create an atmosphere of success Make instruction explicit Provide a balanced program Provide access to books and magazines Counteract the fourth-grade slump

12 Culturally Diverse Students
Teachers should become acquainted with students’ cultures. Recognize that you perceive students through your own cultural lens (Maldonaldo-Colon, 2003). Develop teaching techniques appropriate for diverse learning styles. Accept students’ languages and dialects while modeling standard English.

13 Students with Learning Disabilities
In , 9.6% of U.S. students aged 3-21 received special education services. The largest category of special needs students is the group identified as learning disabled. 80% of students classified as learning disabled have a reading difficulty.

14 Students with Attention Deficit Disorder
Meaningful and interesting tasks Choices of materials and tasks Mobility in the classroom Work in groups Minimize formal tests Directions must be understood Homework assignments must be understood Students keep a calendar Use visual aids Multiple, brief periods of practice Work with parents Minimize distractions Clear classroom procedures Highlight important information Use peer tutoring Use computers

15 Students with Intellectual Disabilities
Make explicit the processes of reading and writing by using modeling and other techniques. Develop functional literacy skills Reading traffic and warning signs, labels, cooking directions, common forms, and newspapers

16 Slow Learners Function on a higher level than students with intellectual disabilities but on a lower level than average students. “More so” students: They need the same instruction that regular students need, but more so (guidance, practice, time, etc.).

17 Students with Language and Speech Disorders
Speech impairments do not directly affect reading or writing. Children with slow language development can experience delays in acquiring basic reading and writing skills. Children with language disorders experience disruption in the language development process.

18 Gifted and Talented Students
Instruction for gifted and talented students should help them Learn to select appropriate books Learn to investigate areas of interest Learn to use library and research tools Learn study skills, if necessary Participate in reading and writing workshops Participate in Junior Great Books (can also be used with average and struggling readers)

19 Inclusion Teaching students who have disabilities or special needs within the general education classroom. Warm, accepting atmosphere Modifications Altering curriculum or other school policy to aid students with disabilities Accommodations Changes in the way students are taught

20 Implications of Diversity, NCLB, and RTI for Instruction
Diversity means teachers need to differentiate instruction. Teachers should try to bring all students to proficiency as mandated by NCLB. Teachers should take a long-term view of literacy. Teachers should be aware of the major findings of literacy research and should become teacher-researchers.

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