2 Learning ObjectivesHow do organization, adaptation, and disequilibrium guide development?
3 Chapter 7: Cognition Cognition: The activity of knowing Typical of humans throughout lifespanChanges across the lifespanPiaget and Vygotsky
4 Piaget Genetic Epistemology Clinical Method How we come to know realityHow do children come to know the world?Clinical MethodQuestion and answer techniqueUsed to discover how children reasonIntelligence: How well we adaptSchemes/cognitive structuresActive creators of our own intelligenceepistemology = studies knowledge of realityGenetic = emergence or developmentSchemes are cognitive structures or-ganized patterns of action or thought that people construct to interpret their experiences
5 organization, children systematically combine existing schemes into new and more complex ones. Adaptation is the process of adjusting to the demands of environment
7 Adaptation Assimilation Accommodation Using existing schemes to interpret new experiencesE.g., Birds are things that flyAccommodationModifying schemes to fit new experienceE.g., Butterflies are different than birds even though they both fly
13 Piaget Adaptation Intelligence = Adaptation Constructivism Adjusting to the environmentUsing assimilation and accommodationIntelligence = AdaptationConstructivismChildren construct own realityUse their experiences (schemes)
14 Piaget Four stages/changes in ability to reason Invariant sequence Sensorimotor: birth to 2 yearsPreoperational: 2 to 7 yearsConcrete operations: 7 to 11 yearsFormal operations: 12+ yearsInvariant sequenceRates may varyRequires maturation and experience
15 Learning ObjectivesWhat are the major achievements of the sensorimotor stage ?How do infants progress toward these achievements?
16 Piaget Sensorimotor Stage Outcome of Stage Newborn uses reflexes to understand world (sensory & motoric intelligence)Outcome of StageMental representationEvidence: Object PermanenceSymbolic CapacityEvidence: Languageinfants solve problems through their actions rather than with their minds
17 During the fi rst month, young infants react refl exively to internal and external stimulation.
18 In the primary circular reactions substage ( 1 4 months), they are more interested in their own bodies than in manipulating toys. Moving their tongues or fi ngers around is entertainment enough at this age.Piaget named this substage primary circular reactions because he observed infants repeating ( hence, the term circular) actions relating to their own bodies ( i. e., primary to themselves) that had initially happened by chance.
19 infants derive pleasure from repeatedly performing an action, such as sucking or banging a toy. Now the repetitive actions are called secondary circular reactions because they involve something in the infants external environment (
20 coordination of secondary schemes, infants combine ( i. e coordination of secondary schemes, infants combine ( i. e., coordinate) secondary actions to achieve simple goals such as pushing an obstacle out of the way of reaching a de-sired object.
21 tertiary circular re-actions ( months), infants experiment in varied ways with toys, exploring them thoroughly and learning all about their properties.Interest in novelty for its own sake
24 Object Permanence A not B error 4-8 mos-out of sight out of mind Mastered 18 mos
25 Learning ObjectivesWhat are the characteristics and limitations of preoperational thought?
26 Preoperational Stage Egocentric Thinkers Problem Solving Limited Classification and seriation problemsAges 2–7: PreschoolMay have imaginary companionsLack ConservationPerceptual SaliencePretend/fantasy play, can use words to refer to things that aren’t presentperceptual salience, or the most obvious features of an object or situation,
27 Irreversible thinking Static thoughtIrreversible thinkingstatic thought, or thought that is fi xed on end states rather than the changes that transform one state into another, as when the water is sitting in the two glasses not being poured or manipulated.Decentration the ability to focus on two or more dimensions of a problem at once.
28 Some common tests of the child’s ability to conserve.
30 Learning ObjectivesWhat are the major characteristics and limitations of concrete operational thought?What are the main features of concrete operational thought?
31 Concrete Operations Age 7-11 Can Conserve Seriation and classification DecentrationReversible thinkingLogical thinking (limited to reality)Seriation and classificationTransitive thinking:“ If J is taller than M, and M is taller than S, who is taller – J or S?”
32 Learning ObjectivesWhat are the main features of formal operational thought?In what ways might adult thought be more advanced than adolescent thought?
33 Formal Operations Adolescence/Puberty Logical Thinking About Ideas Hypothetical and abstract thinkingHypothetical-deductive reasoningDecontextual ThinkingAbility to separate prior knowledge/beliefs from new evidence to the contraryIf concrete operations are mental actions on objects ( tangible things and events), formal operations are mental actions on ideas.concrete operators deal with realities, whereas formal operators can deal with possibili-ties, including those that contradict known reality.
34 Formal Operations 2 Adolescent Egocentrism Differentiating own thoughts from others’Imaginary audienceAlso, learning to present themselves to a real audiencePersonal fable“No one has ever felt like this before!”“I drive better when I’m drunk!”
35 Cognition in Adulthood Formal Operations RequireNormal intelligenceHigher education (scientific thinking)Lower Performance on Formal OperationsWhy? Field of expertise
37 Postformal Thought “A” grows 1 cm per month, “B” grows 2 cm per month Who is taller?
38 John is known to be a heavy drinker, especially when he goes to parties. Mary, John’s wife, warns him that if he gets drunk one more time she will leave him and take the children. Tonight John is out late at an office party. John comes home drunk.Does Mary leave John?
39 Postformal Thought (Highest Level) Relativistic thinkingRelativistAbsolutistNo absolute answer in many situations
40 Progression to postformal thought Adolescence to adulthood:AbsolutistRelativistCommitment to positionAdvanced thinkers:Thrive on paradoxes and challengesConcrete Operations: objectsFormal Operations: ideasPostformal: systems of ideas
41 Postformal occurs… In a minority of adults Mostly in those with advanced educationIn those who are open to rethinking issuesIn a culture that nourishes new ideas
42 Life circumstances and environmental demands tell us more about cognitive abilities than age.
43 The Demographics of Aging Population Trends in the United States Figure 1.1 Population demographics for 200043
44 The Demographics of Aging Population Trends in the United States Figure 1.2 Population demographics for 202544
45 The Demographics of Aging Population Trends in the United States Figure 1.3 Population demographics for 205045
46 The Demographics of Aging Population Trends in the United States Figure 1.4 Population demographics for 210046
47 Diversity of Older Adults in the U.S. Figure 1.5 Population trends for minorities47
48 Population Trends Around the World Figure 1.6 Global Population trends48
49 Population Trends Around the World Figure 1.7 Global Population trends49
52 Age-Related Changes in Primary Abilities Data from Seattle Longitudinal Study of more than 5,000 individuals from 1956 to 1998 in six testing cycles:People tend to improve on primary abilities until late 30s or early 40s.Scores stabilize until mid-50s and early 60s.By late 60s consistent declines are seen.Nearly everyone shows a decline in one ability, but few show decline on four or five abilities.
69 The sequence of development seems to be correct
70 Challenges Underestimated competencies Focused on performance not competenceDomain growth rather than stagesSocial influences left out
71 Learning ObjectivesWhat is the main theme of Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development?How does social interaction contribute to cognitive development according to Vygotsky’s theory?In what ways are Vygotsky and Piaget similar and different in their ideas about cognition?
72 Vygotsky Emphasized the Sociocultural Context Culture effects how and what we thinkSociety precedes the individual and provides the conditions that allow individual thinking to emerge
73 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Gap. Accomplishment with guidanceWhere lessons should be aimed
74 Knowledge is not fixedNo single test can reflect a person’s range of knowledgePerformance on assisted learning tasks predict future achievement
75 Guided Participation Learning Private Speech Guides Behavior(3&4 yr olds)