Presentation on theme: "Ambiguity and Transformations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ambiguity and Transformations Deny A. KwaryAirlangga UniversityAmbiguity and Transformations
2 Ambiguity: a word, phrase or sentence with multiple meanings (p. 122) Synthetic buffalo hides (NP)Synthetic buffalo hides (NP)Synthetic buffalo hidesSynthetic buffalo hidesBuffalo hides that are synthetic.Hides of synthetic buffalo.
3 Ambiguities often lead to humorous results For sale: an antique desk suitable for lady with thick legs and large drawers. what does “thick legs and large drawers” refer to?The desk or the lady?
4 Structural Ambiguity (pp Structural Ambiguity (pp ) The boy saw the man with the telescopeSNPAuxVPDetNVNPPPDetNPNPDetNTheboypastsawthemanwiththetelescope
5 Structural Ambiguity (pp Structural Ambiguity (pp ) The boy saw the man with the telescopeSNPAuxVPDetNPNVDetNPPPNPDetNTheboypastsawthemanwiththetelescope
7 Consider the following sentences: Susie had a shower after she got up.After she got up, Susie had a shower.After Susie got up, she had a shower.She had a shower after Susie got up.Do the four sentences above contain the same words?Yes, they doIn which sentences can the pronoun ‘she’ probably refer to Susie?Sentences #1, 2, & 3The rule: An anaphor many not both precede and command its antecedents
8 What does it mean? Jan and Larry drank whisky and sherry with respect. Jan and Larry drank whisky and sherry, respectivelyJan and Larry drank whisky and sherry with respect.Jan drank whisky and Larry drank sherry.
9 Transformation: A special type of rule that can move an element from one position to another Several types of transformationsDeclarative – InterrogativeActive – PassiveThere sentencesPP preposing
10 Declarative – Interrogative Move the auxiliary to the left of the subject.The boy will leave.SWill the boy leave?SNPAuxVPAuxNPVPDetNVDetNVTheboywillleaveWilltheboyleaveThe deep structureThe surface structure
11 The Wh Movement S NP Aux VP Det NP N V Det N The man should repair Surface structure: Which car should the man repair?Deep structure:SNPAuxVPDetNPNVDetNThemanshouldrepairwhichcar
12 Draw the deep structure of the following sentences Will the boss hire Hillary?Is that player leaving the team?Who should the director call?What is Joanne eating?
13 The syntactic rules in a grammar account for at least: The grammaticality of sentencesWord orderHierarchical organisation of sentencesGrammatical relations such as subject and objectWhether different structures have different meanings or the same meaningThe creative aspect of language
14 That’s All For Today See You Next Week Deny A. KwaryAirlangga UniversityThat’s All For TodaySee You Next Week