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Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language

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1 Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language
Richard Ortega

2 Grammatical vs. Ungrammatical
Well-formed or grammatical sentence: a sequence of words that conform to the rules of syntax. Ill-formed or ungrammatical sentence: a sequence of words that violate the rules of syntax

3 Grammatical or Ungrammatical:
1. The boy found the ball 2. The boy found quickly 3. The boy found in the house 4. The boy found the ball in the house 5. Disa slept the baby 6. Disa slept soundly Find: Transitive verb (with object) Sleep: Intransitive verb (no object)

verb: (abbrev. v.) expresses action, condition, or state of being noun: (abbrev. n.) names a person, place, thing, or idea Vocabulary words pronoun: (abbrev. prn.) substitutes for a noun and functions as one adjective: (abbrev. adj.) describes, modifies, or limits nouns and pronouns adverb: (abbrev. adv.) describes, modifies, or limits a verb, adj. or other adv. preposition: (abbrev. p.) relates a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence conjunction: (abbrev. con.) links words, phrases and clauses function words interjection: (abbrev. int.) expresses a strong emotion or commands attention

5 Identify the part of speech for each of the following:
like prep. tired adj. dude, n. but conj. Wow! interject. I prn. really adv. dig v. grammar n.

6 A part of speech is always determined by its function in the sentence
The mother gave her infant food. baby Jim and Sara to play video games. love A dictionary can be a good friend, when in doubt

7 Syntactic Categories (1)
Lexical categories Noun (N) Verb (V) Adjective (A) Preposition (P) Adverb (Adv) Examples moisture, policy melt, remain good, intelligent to, near slowly, now

8 Syntactic Categories (2)
Non-lexical categories Determiner (Det) Conjunction (Conj) Complementizer (Comp) Examples the, this and, or that (clause)

9 Indicate the category of each word in the following sentences.
a. The glass suddenly broke. b. A jogger ran towards the end of the lane. c. The peaches never appear quite ripe. d. Gillian will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra. Det / N / Adv / V Det / N / V / P / Det / N / P / Det / N Det / N / Adv / V / Adv / A N / Aux / V / Det / N / Conj / Det / N / P / Det / N

10 Phrases NP : Noun Phrase The car, a clever student VP : Verb Phrase
study hard, play the guitar PP : Prepositional Phrase in the class, above the earth AP : Adjective Phrase very tall, quite certain

11 Phrase Structure Rules
NP  (Det) N (PP) PP  P NP The bus in the yard NP The bus (NP) Det N Det N PP The bus P NP Det N The bus in the yard

12 Phrase Structure Rules
VP  V (NP) (PP) S  NP (Aux) VP took the money from the bank VP took the money (VP) V NP V NP PP Det N Det N P NP took the money Det N took the money from the bank

13 Draw the tree diagram. 1. repaired the telephone
2. the success of the program 3. a film about pollution 4. move towards the window 5. cast a spell on the broomstick

14 The main structure rules
1. S  NP (Aux) VP 2. NP  (Det) (AP) N (PP) 3. VP  V (NP) (PP) (Adv) (CP) 4. PP  P NP 5. AP  Adj (PP) N 6. CP  Comp S

15 Example (1) The old tree swayed in the wind S NP VP Det Adj N V PP P

16 Example (2) The children put the toy in the box S NP VP Det N V NP PP


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