3 AdverbsAdverbs are modifiers that specify how or when an event happens: quickly, slowly, yesterday, tomorrow, often
4 Adverbs Sister to the VP S NP VP This chapter VP Adv I totally rocked This chapter totally rocked!SNPVPThischapterVPAdvItotallyrocked
5 Adverbs Sister to the VP S NP VP VP The boy Adv I cried yesterday The boy cried yesterday.SNPVPVPTheboyAdvIcriedyesterday
6 Adverbs Sister to S S Adv S I Hopefully NP VP I this is right Hopefully, this is right.SAdvSIHopefullyNPVPIthisis right
7 Coordinate StructureTwo constituents of the same category are joined with a conjunction such as and or or.“Move as a unit” constituency test
8 Coordinate Structure Two NPs joined by and. NP NP1 CoordP Tom Coord Tom and Jerry are lovers.NPNP1CoordPTomCoordNP2andJerry
9 Infinitives Some embedded sentences can be in the infinitive: Hilary is waiting for you to sing.The host believes the president to be punctual.The chapter touched on this as an FYI, but basically said not to worry about it. So, don’t.
10 Sentence Relatedness The presentation is boring everyone. Is the presentation boring everyone?
11 Sentence Relatedness Declarative vs. Interrogative Created by the “Move Aux” rule:SNPVPThe presentationAuxVPisboring everyone
12 Sentence Relatedness Move Aux - Move the highest Aux to adjoin S S S isNPVP_VPthe presentationboring everyone
13 Chomsky on Transformations 'A grammatical transformation [...] operates on a given string [...] with a given constituent structure and converts it into a new string with a new derived constituent structure. To show exactly how this operation is performed requires a rather elaborate study which would go far beyond the scope of these remarks, but we can in fact develop a certain fairly complex but reasonably natural algebra of transformations having the properties that we apparently require for grammatical description.' (Studies on Semantics in Generative Grammar.1972: 44)
14 More Transformations Active-Passive: There sentences: PP Prepsoing: Tom chased Jerry. -> Jerry was chased by Tom.There sentences:There is a storm coming. -> A storm is coming.PP Prepsoing:Harry killed Hermoine with his wand. -> With his wand, Harry killed Hermoine.
15 Structure Dependant Rules Adding to the Aux:The pop star loves to party.The pop stars love to party.SVPNPAuxPresentThird personSingularVPThe pop starloves to party=======
16 Syntactic Dependency WH Questions: Move WH Rule Wh phrase acts as the objectWhat will Charlie buy?Wh phrase acts as prepositional phrase objectWhere has your mother gone?Wh phrase acts at the embedded subjectWhich team do you think will win?
17 Syntactic Dependency CP C S NP VP Aux VP Charlie will V NP buy what Wh Questions: D-structureCPCSNPVPAuxVPCharliewillVNPbuywhat
18 Syntactic Dependency CP S C S What Aux NP VP will Aux VP Charlie V NP Wh Questions: S-structureCPSCSWhatAuxNPVPwillAuxVPCharlieVNPbuy
19 Linguistic Exercise16. All wh phrases can move to the left periphery of the sentence:a. Invent three sentences beginning with what, which, and where, in which the wh word is not in its d-structure position in the sentence. Give both versions of your sentence. Here is an example with the wh word when: When could Marcy catch a flight out of here? From Marcy could catch a flight out of here when?b. Draw the phrase structure tree for one of these sentences using the phrase structure and movement rules provided in the chapter.
20 Works Cited and Consulted “Linguistics: Methods of synchronic linguistic analysis:TRANSFORMATIONAL-GENERATIVE GRAMMAR: Chomsky's grammar.”BritannicaOnline, Encyclopedia Britannica, 1995.“Noam Chomsky, Syntactic Structures.”thesis.net/texts/notes/syntax-chomsky.txt (31 July 2007)