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Stress Chapter 10 As part of introduction, ask class:

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1 Stress Chapter 10 As part of introduction, ask class:
How do you feel when you are stressed? What are characteristics of stressful events? --Ambiguous --Negative --Uncontrollable

2 Stress and Life What stresses you out?
Children Teenagers College-age Young adults Middle age Elderly What stresses you out? In what negative ways do you handle stress? In what positive ways do you handle stress? OPTIONAL SLIDE – CAN USE THIS TO INTRODUCE TOPIC IF YOU WANT Different stressors with age and where you are in life. Important to understand what stresses you out and how you deal with stress.

3 Lecture Objectives Explain what stress is and how people react to it: physically, emotionally, and behaviorally. Describe the theories on human reactions to stress Discuss how personality, gender, and past experiences affect stress. Explain why stress can be dangerous? Describe coping strategies and techniques used to manage stress.

4 What Is Stress? Stressor Stress response Stress Types of stressors
Responses to stressors Stressor: any physical or psychological event or condition that produces stress Stress response: the physiological changes associated with stress Stress: the collective physiological and emotional responses to any stimulus that disturbs an individual’s homeostasis TYPES: Environmental: heat, noise, overcrowding, climate, terain Physiological: drugs, caffeine, tobacco, injury, infection or disease, physical effort Emotional: MOST FREQUENT AND IMPORTANT STRESSORS AFFECTING HUMANS -life-changing event, -family illness, problems or change at work, death, increase responsibility RESPONSES: Physiological: increased HR, BP; sweaty palms; fatigue; dry mouth; frequent illness; headaches; aching lower back; gastrointestinal problems Cognitive: decrease in concentration and attention span; trouble remembering things Emotional: anxiety; depression; edginess; fatigue; impulsiveness; irritability Behavioral: nervous habits; altered eating and sleep patterns; problems communicating; social isolation; increased use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs

5 The Stress Target Zone BURN RUST OUT EUSTRESS
(The optimal amount of stress) BURN OUT RUST Good and bad stress Distress is negative stress Eustress is positive stress Some amount of positive stress is important and good for us. It challenges us and makes us grow and develop. 7

6 Theories on Human Reactions to Stress
Fight or Flight General Adaptation Syndrome Fight or Flight: --immediately mobilizes body’s resources, general reaction to all stressors --two bodily systems involved: Autonomic nervous system: branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls basic body processes --Sympathetic division: division of the autonomic nervous system that reacts to danger or other challenges by accelerating body processes --Parasympathetic division: division of the autonomic nervous system that moderates the excitatory effect of the sympathetic division Endocrine system: system of glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream; influences metabolism and body processes --Norepinephrine: neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic division to increase body functions; increases attention, awareness, alertness --Epinephrine: hormone secreted by the inner core of the adrenal gland --Cortisol: steroid hormone secreted by the outer layer of the adrenal gland --Endorphin: brain secretions that have pain-inhibiting effects Together, the nervous system and the endocrine system prepare the body to respond to a stressor. The physiological response is the same regardless of the nature of the stressor. Once a stressful situation ends, the parasympathetic division returns the body to homeostasis—a state of stability and consistency in an individual’s physiological functioning. The fight-or-flight reaction is often inappropriate for dealing with the stressors of modern life, many of which do not require a physical response. General Adaptation Syndrome: -Alarm reaction: immediate reaction, immune system lowered -Resistance: adapt to stress, increased resistance to illness, immune system working overtime -Exhaustion: not able to maintain  worn out, decrease in resistance Everyone has different levels of toleration and resistance, but everyone gets to exhaustion at some point.

7 Personality, Gender, Past Experiences, and Stress
Personality types Gender differences Influence of past experiences Hardiness Personality: Type A = ultracompetitive, controlling, impatient, aggressive, hostile Easily upset; react explosively to stressors Type B = relaxed, contemplative, tolerant of others React more calmly to stressors Type C = difficulty expressing emotions, anger suppression, feelings of hopelessness and despair Exaggerated stress response Gender: --Gender roles affect perception of and responses to stressors --Both sexes experience the fight-or-flight physiological response to stress --Women are more likely to respond behaviorally with a pattern of “tend-and-befriend” --Gender differences may be partly tied to higher levels of the hormone oxytocin in women Past Experiences: --Past experiences influence the cognitive evaluation of a potential stressor --Effective behavioral responses can overcome the effects of negative past experiences Hardiness: --Committed to activities, sense of inner purpose, inner locus of control. View stressors as challenges and opportunities for growth.

8 Appraisal of Stressors
High Stress Outcome See stressor as a threat Stressor Stress Coping Appraisal Explain appraisal process: --stressor occurs --(appraisal) either see stressor as a threat or a challenge --results in high or low stress --use a coping mechanism --outcome See stressor as a challenge Low Stress

9 Why is Stress Dangerous?
Health CHD and stroke Gastrointestinal problems such as ulcers Impaired immune system Insomnia Wellness Fewer positive behaviors More negative behaviors healthy heart Fewer positive behaviors: (lack of exercise, unhealthy diet, lack of sleep) More negative behaviors: (drinking, smoking, etc…) diseased heart 4

10 Counterproductive Coping Strategies
Tobacco Alcohol Other drugs Binge eating

11 Managing Stress Communication Exercise Spiritual wellness Nutrition
Time management Manage anger Exercise Nutrition Sleep Social support Exercise: Reduces anxiety and increases sense of well-being; mobilizes energy resources to complete the energy cycle; avoid compulsive exercise Nutrition: Eat a balanced diet; avoid excess caffeine Sleep: Lack of sleep is both a cause and an effect of excess stress Social Support: Foster friendships; keep family ties strong; get involved with a group Communication: Balance anger and assertiveness Spiritual wellness: Organized religion; spending time in nature; helping others; art or other creative endeavors; personal relationships --Spiritual wellness can promote: Social support; healthy habits; positive attitude; moments of relaxation; awareness and clarification of personal values Managing anger: --Self: Reframe self-talk, speak and listen non-defensively, deliberately calm self, find distractions --Others: Counteract rage with calm, validate the other person, probe, assume a problem orientation, refuse to be abused, disengage

12 Cognitive Techniques to Manage Stress
Modify expectations Engage in realistic self-talk Live in the present “Go with the flow” Cultivate your sense of humor

13 Relaxation Relaxation response Relaxation techniques:
Progressive relaxation Biofeedback Visualization Hypnosis Deep, slow breathing Listening to music Meditation, yoga Massage Relaxation response: a physiological state characterized by a feeling of warmth and quiet mental alertness Progressive relaxation: alternating muscle tension and relaxation Biofeedback: a technique that uses monitoring devices to help a person become conscious of unconscious body processes, such as body temperature or blood pressure, in order to exert some control over them. Visualization: creating or recreating vivid mental pictures of a place or an experience

14 Getting Help Peer counseling and support groups Professional help
Is it stress or something more serious? Depression Severe depression is linked to suicide Depression: a mood disorder characterized by loss of interest in usual activities, sadness, hopelessness, loss appetite, disturbed sleep, and other physical symptoms

15 Lecture Summary Explain what stress is and how people react to it: physically, emotionally, and behaviorally. Describe the theories on human reactions to stress Discuss how personality, gender, and past experiences affect stress. Explain why stress can be dangerous? Describe coping strategies and techniques used to manage stress.

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