Stress Chapter 10 As part of introduction, ask class:
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1 Stress Chapter 10 As part of introduction, ask class: How do you feel when you are stressed?What are characteristics of stressful events?--Ambiguous--Negative--Uncontrollable
2 Stress and Life What stresses you out? ChildrenTeenagersCollege-ageYoung adultsMiddle ageElderlyWhat stresses you out?In what negative ways do you handle stress?In what positive ways do you handle stress?OPTIONAL SLIDE – CAN USE THIS TO INTRODUCE TOPIC IF YOU WANTDifferent stressors with age and where you are in life.Important to understand what stresses you out and how you deal with stress.
3 Lecture ObjectivesExplain what stress is and how people react to it: physically, emotionally, and behaviorally.Describe the theories on human reactions to stressDiscuss how personality, gender, and past experiences affect stress.Explain why stress can be dangerous?Describe coping strategies and techniques used to manage stress.
4 What Is Stress? Stressor Stress response Stress Types of stressors Responses to stressorsStressor: any physical or psychological event or condition that produces stressStress response: the physiological changes associated with stressStress: the collective physiological and emotional responses to any stimulus that disturbs an individual’s homeostasisTYPES:Environmental: heat, noise, overcrowding, climate, terainPhysiological: drugs, caffeine, tobacco, injury, infection or disease, physical effortEmotional: MOST FREQUENT AND IMPORTANT STRESSORS AFFECTING HUMANS-life-changing event, -family illness, problems or change at work, death, increase responsibilityRESPONSES:Physiological: increased HR, BP; sweaty palms; fatigue; dry mouth; frequent illness; headaches; aching lower back; gastrointestinal problemsCognitive: decrease in concentration and attention span; trouble remembering thingsEmotional: anxiety; depression; edginess; fatigue; impulsiveness; irritabilityBehavioral: nervous habits; altered eating and sleep patterns; problems communicating; social isolation; increased use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs
5 The Stress Target Zone BURN RUST OUT EUSTRESS (The optimal amount of stress)BURNOUTRUSTGood and bad stressDistress is negative stressEustress is positive stressSome amount of positive stress is important and good for us. It challenges us and makes us grow and develop.7
6 Theories on Human Reactions to Stress Fight or FlightGeneral Adaptation SyndromeFight or Flight:--immediately mobilizes body’s resources, general reaction to all stressors--two bodily systems involved:Autonomic nervous system: branch of the peripheral nervous system that controls basic body processes--Sympathetic division: division of the autonomic nervous system that reacts to danger or other challenges by accelerating body processes--Parasympathetic division: division of the autonomic nervous system that moderates the excitatory effect of the sympathetic divisionEndocrine system: system of glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream; influences metabolism and body processes--Norepinephrine: neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic division to increase body functions; increases attention, awareness, alertness--Epinephrine: hormone secreted by the inner core of the adrenal gland--Cortisol: steroid hormone secreted by the outer layer of the adrenal gland--Endorphin: brain secretions that have pain-inhibiting effectsTogether, the nervous system and the endocrine system prepare the body to respond to a stressor. The physiological response is the same regardless of the nature of the stressor. Once a stressful situation ends, the parasympathetic division returns the body to homeostasis—a state of stability and consistency in an individual’s physiological functioning.The fight-or-flight reaction is often inappropriate for dealing with the stressors of modern life, many of which do not require a physical response.General Adaptation Syndrome:-Alarm reaction: immediate reaction, immune system lowered-Resistance: adapt to stress, increased resistance to illness, immune system working overtime-Exhaustion: not able to maintain worn out, decrease in resistanceEveryone has different levels of toleration and resistance, but everyone gets to exhaustion at some point.
7 Personality, Gender, Past Experiences, and Stress Personality typesGender differencesInfluence of past experiencesHardinessPersonality:Type A = ultracompetitive, controlling, impatient, aggressive, hostileEasily upset; react explosively to stressorsType B = relaxed, contemplative, tolerant of othersReact more calmly to stressorsType C = difficulty expressing emotions, anger suppression, feelings of hopelessness and despairExaggerated stress responseGender:--Gender roles affect perception of and responses to stressors--Both sexes experience the fight-or-flight physiological response to stress--Women are more likely to respond behaviorally with a pattern of “tend-and-befriend”--Gender differences may be partly tied to higher levels of the hormone oxytocin in womenPast Experiences:--Past experiences influence the cognitive evaluation of a potential stressor--Effective behavioral responses can overcome the effects of negative past experiencesHardiness:--Committed to activities, sense of inner purpose, inner locus of control. View stressors as challenges and opportunities for growth.
8 Appraisal of Stressors High StressOutcomeSee stressor as a threatStressorStressCopingAppraisalExplain appraisal process:--stressor occurs--(appraisal) either see stressor as a threat or a challenge--results in high or low stress--use a coping mechanism--outcomeSee stressor as a challengeLow Stress
9 Why is Stress Dangerous? HealthCHD and strokeGastrointestinal problems such as ulcersImpaired immune systemInsomniaWellnessFewer positive behaviorsMore negative behaviorshealthy heartFewer positive behaviors:(lack of exercise, unhealthy diet, lack of sleep)More negative behaviors:(drinking, smoking, etc…)diseased heart4
11 Managing Stress Communication Exercise Spiritual wellness Nutrition Time managementManage angerExerciseNutritionSleepSocial supportExercise: Reduces anxiety and increases sense of well-being; mobilizes energy resources to complete the energy cycle; avoid compulsive exerciseNutrition: Eat a balanced diet; avoid excess caffeineSleep: Lack of sleep is both a cause and an effect of excess stressSocial Support: Foster friendships; keep family ties strong; get involved with a groupCommunication: Balance anger and assertivenessSpiritual wellness: Organized religion; spending time in nature; helping others; art or other creative endeavors; personal relationships--Spiritual wellness can promote: Social support; healthy habits; positive attitude; moments of relaxation; awareness and clarification of personal valuesManaging anger:--Self:Reframe self-talk, speak and listen non-defensively, deliberately calm self, find distractions--Others:Counteract rage with calm, validate the other person, probe, assume a problem orientation, refuse to be abused, disengage
12 Cognitive Techniques to Manage Stress Modify expectationsEngage in realistic self-talkLive in the present“Go with the flow”Cultivate your sense of humor
13 Relaxation Relaxation response Relaxation techniques: Progressive relaxationBiofeedbackVisualizationHypnosisDeep, slow breathingListening to musicMeditation, yogaMassageRelaxation response: a physiological state characterized by a feeling of warmth and quiet mental alertnessProgressive relaxation: alternating muscle tension and relaxationBiofeedback: a technique that uses monitoring devices to help a person become conscious of unconscious body processes, such as body temperature or blood pressure, in order to exert some control over them.Visualization: creating or recreating vivid mental pictures of a place or an experience
14 Getting Help Peer counseling and support groups Professional help Is it stress or something more serious?DepressionSevere depression is linked to suicideDepression: a mood disorder characterized by loss of interest in usual activities, sadness, hopelessness, loss appetite, disturbed sleep, and other physical symptoms
15 Lecture SummaryExplain what stress is and how people react to it: physically, emotionally, and behaviorally.Describe the theories on human reactions to stressDiscuss how personality, gender, and past experiences affect stress.Explain why stress can be dangerous?Describe coping strategies and techniques used to manage stress.