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Personal Stress Management

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Presentation on theme: "Personal Stress Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Personal Stress Management

2 Stress And Stressors Stress Stressors
Nonspecific response of the body to any demand Stressors Positive or negative things that upset or excite you

3 Five Categories Of Stress
1. Acute, time-limited 2. Brief naturalistic 3. Sequence of stressful events 4. Chronic stressors 5. Past stressors

4 Theories To Explain Stress Responses
Theory Type Example Theories Biological General Adaptation Syndrome Non-Biological Cognitive-Transactional Model Life-Events Model Psychological Diathesis Stress Model

5 General Adaptation Syndrome

6 Cognitive Transactional Model
Summary Powerful relationship between stress and health exists Details Stress is an individual response Stress is the relationship between demands and ability to deal with demands without unreasonable or destructive costs

7 Life Events Model Summary Details
Individual level of stress based on life-change units Details Scores give ‘potential stress’ of each event Over 300 units/year increases risk of serious health problems

8 Diathesis Stress Model
Summary Stressors have different effects based on individual’s predisposition to psychological problems Details Stressors that exceed a person’s threshold trigger psychological symptoms

9 Stress Causes Dramatic Health Effects
Overview Causes molecular changes in chromosomes Increases susceptibility to illness Slows digestive system Alters endocrine system

10 Effects Of Stress On The Body

11 Chronic Exposure To Cortisol Is Dangerous
Effects Of Cortisol Slows time to remove triglycerides from blood stream Creates excessive central obesity Increases risk of diabetes and heart disease Risk of heart disease is higher for those who experience anger, anxiety and depression These emotions also cause release of cortisol

12 Stress Effects On The Heart
Significant inherited risk factor for heart disease is family transmission of stress Stress pushes people toward bad habits that cause heart disease: Overeating, smoking etc. Increased blood pressure from chronic stress

13 Stress Effects On The Immune System
Immune system adaptation to stress becomes harmful as stress becomes chronic Traumatic stress can impair immunity for one year Acute stress decreases number of immune cells Women are at higher risk for autoimmune and allergic disorders

14 Stress Effects On Digestion
Stress changes how the body digests and metabolizes food Ways to minimize stress effects Avoid weight gain Eat meals regularly Eat sugar in small amounts Avoid caffeine

15 Common College Stressors
Half of college students report high levels of stress each semester Financial problems Test pressure Problems in friendships and relationships Frustration Daily hassles

16 Stress Occurs Throughout Life
Other Stressors Job stress Illness or disability Societal stress Economic trouble

17 Stress Effects Vary Between Genders
Men and women react to and cope with stress in different ways Women Men Stress Higher stress level Less stress felt Coping ‘Tend and befriend’ Emotional response Impulsive action Fight or flight Aggression

18 Stress In Minority Students
Racism and acculturation may create stress for minority students Acculturation Change in an ethnic minority due to contact with an ethnic majority Racism Discrimination based on race Effects of stress Increased sensitivity to social climate, experiences of actual or perceived racism Symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts

19 Take Action To Manage Stress
Stress has better outcomes when it is approached from a problem-focused perspective: Plan strategies to deal with stress Take action when presented with stress Emotion-focused responses are connected to poorer health and more negative feelings

20 Five Specific Ways To Manage Stress
1. Journaling 2. Exercise 3. Relaxation Progressive relaxation Visualization Biofeedback 4. Meditation and Mindfulness 5. Yoga

21 Time Management Can Also Reduce Stress
Everyone can learn time management! Use calendar to plan ahead Allow extra time for the unexpected Identify time robbers Break down big tasks Make study time efficient Keep study area organized

22 Strategies To Combat Test Stress
Plan ahead Be positive Take regular breaks Practice Talk to other students Be satisfied with doing your best

23 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Causes Any event that causes trauma: Captivity Assault Rape Child Abuse Accidents Disaster Health Effects Memory problems Increased risk of heart disease and metabolic syndrome Treatment Different for every person Therapy and medication

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