Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Stress: The Constant Challenge Chapter 2

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Stress: The Constant Challenge Chapter 2"— Presentation transcript:

1 Stress: The Constant Challenge Chapter 2

2 Stress What is Stress? Two Situations Physical response to stress
Emotional responses to stress What makes an event stressful? Mostly associated with negative events; Death, financial problems, relationship problems, job, school, any unpleasant life changes. OR Associated with positive situations: marriage, birth of a child, new home, new car, school, any pleasant life changes. Chapter 2

3 Concepts in Stress Stressor Stress response Stress Homeostasis
Eustress Distress Stressor – Any physical or psychological event or condition that produces stress. In other words, situations that trigger stress responses or reactions. Stress response – The physiological changes associated with stress. Reactions to stressors. Stress – The collective physiological and emotional responses to any stimulus that disturbs an individual’s homeostasis. The general state that accompanies the stress response. Homeostasis – A state of stability and consistency in an individual’s physiological functioning. “Balance of the body.” Eustress – Stress resulting from a pleasant stressor. Positive stress. Distress – Stress resulting from an unpleasant stressor. Negative stress. Chapter 2

4 Physical Responses to Stress
Actions of the Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic System Fight or Flight response Influences in modern day life Parasympathetic System Return to Homeostasis Actions of the Endocrine system Hormones Actions of the nervous system – The nervous system is made-up of two parts: the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists of the Autonomic and the Somatic Nervous Systems. The Autonomic Nervous System includes the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions. Actions of the endocrine system – This system of glands, tissues, and cells helps control body functions by releasing hormones and other chemical messengers into the bloodstream. Along with the nervous system (especially the sympathetic nervous system), the endocrine system helps prepare the body to respond to a stressor. Return to homeostasis – Your body resists dramatic changes and prefers its systems to remain in a narrow range of functioning. Some of these functions include blood pressure, heart rate, hormone levels, digestion, temperature regulation and many others. If damage as a result of the fight or flight reaction occurs, repairs will happen at this time. Fight or flight in modern day life – It enables our bodies to quickly prepare to escape from an injury or to engage in a physical confrontation. The fight or flight reaction prepares the body for action regardless of whether such action is a necessary or appropriate response to a particular stressor. Chapter 2

5 Endocrine System Function of the Amygdala Hypothalamus Pituitary gland
Corticotropin releasing factor, CRF Pituitary gland ACTH Adrenal gland Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol Actions of the endocrine system – This system of glands, tissues, and cells helps control body functions by releasing hormones and other chemical messengers into the bloodstream. Along with the nervous system (especially the sympathetic nervous system), the endocrine system helps prepare the body to respond to a stressor. Chapter 2

6 Effects of Adrenaline on the Body
Hearing and Vision Lungs Heart Liver Sweat glands Pain receptors Muscles Digestive system Chapter 2

7 Chapter 2

8 The Fight or Flight Reaction in Modern Life
Today’s stressors elicit a physical response regardless of the treat. Fight or flight in modern day life – It enables our bodies to quickly prepare to escape from an injury or to engage in a physical confrontation. The fight or flight reaction prepares the body for action regardless of whether such action is a necessary or appropriate response to a particular stressor. Chapter 2

9 Emotional & Behavioral Responses to Stress
Effective responses to stress: Talking, Laughing, Exercise and Time Management Ineffective responses to stress: Overeating, procrastination, frustration Effective and ineffective responses – Both emotional responses and behavioral responses can result in either negative (unhealthy) or positive (healthy) coping strategies. Some responses may be inborn personality (genetic) or learned. Personality and stress – Although researchers are unsure of how the brain’s complex emotional mechanisms work, they know stress and personality are somehow associated. Type A & B personalities – Early research by Friedman and Rosenman reported that people with certain personality characteristics had higher incidence of heart disease than people with other characteristics. “Type A” people are described as ultra competitive, controlling, impatient, aggressive and hostile. “Type B” individuals tend to be relaxed, contemplative, and much less hurried. Early studies suggested Type A people had a greater risk of heart disease. However, recent evidence indicates only particular characteristics of the Type A pattern (anger, cynicism, & hostility) increase the risk of heart disease. The hardy personality – Researchers have investigated what personality traits enable people to cope more successfully with stress than others. Kobasa examined “hardiness,” a particular form of optimism. She found people with a hardy personality view stressors as challenges and opportunities, tend to perceive few situations as stressful, react to stress in less intense ways, and tend to have an internal locus of control. Cultural background – Both dealing (coping) with stress and perceptions of stress are influenced by the family and the culture in which one is raised. Gender – Gender roles (the activities, abilities, and behaviors our culture expects of us based on whether we are male or female) and hormone differences affect our experience of stress. Past experiences – Your past experiences significantly influence your responses to stressors. Effective emotional and behavioral responses can help overcome negative past experiences Chapter 2

10 Responses to Stress Somatic Nervous System Personality and Stress
Manages conscious actions Personality and Stress Type A, B and C Hardy Personality Cultural background Gender Past Experiences Chapter 2

11 General Adaptation Syndrome (G.A.S.)
Alarm Fight or Flight Resistance Exhaustion Allostatic load The theory of the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) was developed by Hans Selye, “the father of stress management” to help explain the relationship between stress and disease. The GAS describes a universal and predictable response pattern to all stressors. These stressors can be positive or negative (eustress and distress), but the sequence of physiological responses are the same for both. This sequence has three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. Selye’s model of the GAS is still viewed as a key contribution to modern day stress theory, but some aspects of his theory are now discounted (exhaustion stage* v. the allostatic load). Alarm – Includes the fight or flight reaction (a complex biochemical process of events activated by the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system). During this stage the body prepares itself for action and is more susceptible to disease or injury because it is geared up to deal with a crisis. Resistance – With continued stress, coping strategies are developed and used to create a new level of homeostasis. During this stage, the body is more resistant to disease and injury than normal. Exhaustion* – Because of the long-term mobilization of forces during the alarm reaction and the maintenance of homeostasis during the resistance stage, considerable amounts of resources are depleted. This depletion causes extreme physiological exhaustion that can be life-threatening. Allostatic load – Long-term wear and tear (exposure) of the stress response (not the depletion of resources). Chapter 2

12 Chapter 2

13 Alarm Phase Chapter 2

14 Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
The study of …. Complex network of nerve and chemical connections between the nervous system, endocrine system and the immune system. Chapter 2

15 Links Between Stress and Specific Health Conditions
Cardiovascular Disease Weakened Immune System Psychological Problems Other health problems Digestive disorders Headaches Insomnia Injuries Cardiovascular Disease: blood pressure rises during stress response, chronic high blood pressure leads to Arteriosclerosis, a disease which, the lining of the blood vessels becomes damaged and fatty deposits plaque the inner lining. People the experience “HOT REACTORS” extreme increases in heart rate and blood pressure may increase their risk of CVD. Weakened Immune System: immune function becomes weakened as described in PNI. This will lead to vulnerability to colds, infections, asthma, allergy attacks, and increases the susceptibility to cancer, flare-ups of chronic diseases such as HIV, Herpes and Irritable bowel syndrome. Other: digestive disorders: Stomach aches, diarrhea, constipation, ulcers and malnutrition. Tension headaches, migraines Insomnia Injures - prolonged healing time Menstrual irregularities, impotence, and pregnancy complications. Psychological problems; Depression, anxiety, eating disorders(binge eating), Post-traumatic stress syndrome (effects people who witness or suffered a severe trauma), and panic attacks. Chapter 2

16 Common Sources of Stress
Life changes Daily hassles College Job Interpersonal Social Environmental Internal Major life changes – Being able to adjust to significant changes in life are part of the early adult and college years. Research indicates that some life changes, particularly those that are perceived as negative, can affect health. Daily hassles – Richard Lazarus proposes that minor problems can be a greater source of stress that major life changes because they occur much more often. College stressors – Careful planning and preparation can help make academic stressors, such as exams, grades, and choosing a major, more predictable and manageable. The development of new relationships and balancing multiple roles may be viewed as a challenge or a difficult necessity. Most people do have enough time to fulfill all of their responsibilities, but they don’t manage their time or priorities effectively. Regardless of your financial situation, try to avoid extravagant spending and excessive worrying about money. Use your resources to pursue academic successes that will help enhance your future financial situation. Job-related stressors – Americans rate their jobs as one of the major sources of stress in their lives. Tight schedules and overtime contribute to time-related pressures. If job-related stress becomes too severe, burnout may occur. Social stressors – Although social support networks are one way to help manage stress, other pressures in society may cause stress. These include prejudice and discrimination. Environmental stressors – Environmental stressors include things like natural disasters, industrial accidents, and intrusive noises, smells, or sights. Internal stressors – These stressors lie within ourselves. Low self-esteem, unrealistic expectations, illnesses and exhaustion may contribute to stress and the need for stress management. Chapter 2

17 Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Cognitive, emotional and behavioral reactions to trauma Signs Positive steps to help cope Chapter 2

18 Techniques for Managing Stress
Social Support Communication Exercise Nutrition Sleep Social support – People need people. Research supports the idea that sharing fears, frustrations, and joys not only increases one’s quality of life, but also contributes to one’s overall well-being. Communication – Increase your communication skills in order to decrease stress in your relationships. These skills include being assertive and being an active listener. Exercise – Research indicates that regular physical activity can reduce various negative effects of stress. Incorporate light to moderate physical activity into your life everyday if possible. Nutrition – A well balanced diet will provide a healthy foundation when you experience stress. Eating wisely will also enhance your feelings of self-control and self-esteem. In addition, be sure to avoid or limit caffeine consumption. Sleep – Lack of sleep can be both a cause and an effect of excess stress. Without enough sleep, our mental and physical processes gradually deteriorate. Adequate sleep improves mood, fosters feelings of competence and self-worth, and supports optimal mental and emotional functioning. Time management – Learning to manage your time is crucial to coping with the stressors you face everyday. Three common factors that negatively impact time management for college students are perfectionism, overcommitment, and procrastination. Perfectionism is the need to constantly improve a project, situation, or personal trait. It is frequently based on a self-deprecating fear of failure or harsh judgment by others. Overcommitters find it difficult to say no or to accurately assess their current workload. Procrastination is a problem for many people. Although reasons for procrastination vary, it often is associated with self-doubt, perfectionism, or a reluctance to change. Cognitive techniques – Some stressors are created in our own minds. Ideas, beliefs, perceptions, and patterns of thinking can add to our stress level. With practice, these skills can be mastered. Relaxation techniques – The relaxation response (a physiological state characterized by a feeling of warmth and quiet mental alertness) was first described by Herbert Benson. It is the opposite of the fight or flight response. Use one or more relaxation techniques, but they all require practice. Chapter 2

19 Techniques for Managing Stress
Time Management Say “NO” to procrastination Say “YES” to: Setting priorities Schedule Realistic Goals Visualization Set priorities – Divide your tasks (to do list) into three groups: essential, important, and trivial. Focus on the first two, ignore the third. Identifying a timeline is also helpful (due now, soon, or later). Schedule tasks for peak efficiency – Identify when you are most productive (morning, afternoon, or night) and schedule as many of your tasks during these times as you can, especially high priority tasks. Set, write down, and visualize realistic goals – Attainable goals spur you on, “Success leads to success” while impossible goals lead to frustration and failure. Written goals provide accountability. Mentally rehearse the performance of a task. And, be positive! Budget enough time – Calculate how long it will take to complete a task, the add on 10-25% more time to guard against mistakes, interruptions, or unanticipated problems. Break down long-term goals into short-term goals – Instead of waiting for or relying on large blocks of time, use short amounts of time to start a project or keep it going. Remember, “By the inch it’s a cinch, by the yard it’s hard!” Be task oriented – Keep track of the tasks you put off. Analyze your reasons for procrastination. Try doing your least favorite tasks first. Consolidate tasks when possible and identify transitional tasks. Delegate responsibility – Asking for help when you have too much to do is no cop-out, it’s responsible. Say no when necessary – If the requests aren’t feasible or reasonable, say no--tactfully, but without guilt. Give yourself a break – Allow time for play. Play renews you and enables you to work more efficiently. Stop thinking or talking about what you’re going to do and just do it! – Just getting started may be the best solution to procrastination. Once you’ve started, your momentum will probably keep you going. Chapter 2

20 Techniques for Managing Stress
Cognitive Techniques Think and Act constructively Take control Problem solve Modify the experiences Stay positive Think and act constructively – Think about things you can control. Be objective and positive. Take control – A situation often feels more stressful if you feel you’re not in control of it. Focus on what is possible to control and set realistic goals. Be confident in your ability to succeed. Problem-solve – Go through a formal process of problem solving. Write it down! Try this approach: Define the problem; identify the causes; consider alternative solutions (options); weigh the positive and negative consequences for each option (develop a matrix for pros and cons); make a decision or choose a solution based on your information and your values; make a list of what you’ll need to carry out your decision; begin to act; and evaluate the outcome (short and long-term) and revise or modify your approach if necessary. Modify your expectations – Many times unrealistic expectations are exhausting and restricting. Relaxing your expectations does not mean being irresponsible, changing your values, or lowering you personal standards. Maintain positivity – Be an optimist. Change your inner dialog and use positive self-talk (discussed in chapter 3). “If life gives you lemons, make lemonade!” Cultivate your sense of humor – Laughter may be the best medicine for stress. Don’t be afraid to laugh at yourself, build humor into your life, appreciate jokes, keep a humor journal, collect newspaper and magazine cartoons, collect funny props, and watch funny films and TV shows. Weed out trivia – Forget unimportant details and organize important material into categories. “Chunk” information and make mental outlines. Live in the present – Clear your mind of old debris, let it go! Free yourself to enjoy life today. Go with the flow – Be forgiving of faults, your own and those of others. View challenges as opportunities to learn and grow. Be flexible. Adjust and adapt. “The branch that bends in the storm, doesn’t break!” Chapter 2

21 Relaxation Techniques
Deep Breathing Progressive Relaxation Visualization Meditation Yoga T’ai chi ch’uan Music Biofeedback Progressive Relaxation – This technique requires no imagination, willpower, or self-suggestion. Simply tense, and then relax, the muscles in your body, group by group. Breathe in as you tense, breathe out as you relax. This method helps you become aware of muscular tension which occurs when you are under stress. Visualization – This is also known as imagery and allows you to daydream without guilt. It has been proven to help you relax, change your habits, or improve your performance. Meditation – Mediation is a way of telling the mind to be quiet for a while. It allows one to focus and concentrate. Because it has been at the core of many Eastern religions and philosophies, meditation has acquired a mystique that has caused some people to shy away from it. No matter what religion, philosophy, or emotional reason behind using meditation, it produces the relaxation response. Deep Breathing – Your breathing pattern is closely tied to your stress level. While deep, slow breathing is related to relaxation; rapid, shallow, irregular breathing is associated with stress. The main goal of many breathing exercises is to change breathing patterns from chest breathing to diaphragmatic “belly” breathing. Diaphragmatic breathing is slower and deeper than chest breathing. Hatha Yoga – Yoga is an ancient Sanskrit work referring to the union of mind, body, and soul. It is rooted in Hindu philosophy of spiritual enlightenment. It uses a system of physical postures (asanas) to cleanse the body, calm and clear the mind, bring energy into the body, and raise the level of consciousness. Hatha yoga is the most common style practiced in the U.S. It emphasizes physical balance and breathing control. It integrates components of flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, and muscle relaxation. T’ai Chi Ch’uan – T’ai Chi is centered around chi “energy” and bringing the body into balance and harmony. It is considered to be the gentlest means of self-defense for the martial arts. The practice of t’ai chi promotes relaxation, concentration, body awareness, balance, muscular strength, and flexibility. Listening to Music – Research has shown many stress-related physiological benefits of listening to music . Biofeedback – Biofeedback helps people become more aware of their level of physiological arousal by using mechanical monitoring. It usually requires the guidance of a therapist or stress counselor. Chapter 2

22 Counterproductive Coping Strategies
Tobacco use Alcohol Other drugs Binge eating Chapter 2

23 Personal Plan for Managing Stress
Identify the Stressor Designing your Plan Personal contract Getting Help Identifying stressors – Before you learn to manage the stressors in your life, you have to identify them. Keep a stress journal for one or two weeks or even longer. Log your activities and rate your stress level. Be sure to write down each time you experience a stress response, the time, and the surrounding circumstances (people, environment, thoughts, and behaviors, etc.). From your journal, you should be able to identify patterns and how you respond to them. The more information you gather, the easier it will be to develop effective coping strategies as part of your stress management plan. Designing your plan – Once you’ve identified key stressors, it’s time it choose the techniques or strategies that will work best for you. Some of the strategies that improve success rates include using the “buddy system,” identifying appropriate rewards for goal attainment, developing and signing a behavior change contract, and regularly evaluating your plan and revising it if necessary. Getting Help – You may want to read more about the specific area that you are working on, consult a peer counselor, join a support group, or participate in a few psychotherapy sessions, especially if the techniques you have tried using for change are not working. Chapter 2

24 Behavioral Change Strategy
Systematic Desensitization Phase I Phase II Phase III Success Rehearsal Chapter 2

25 Thank You! Chapter 2

Download ppt "Stress: The Constant Challenge Chapter 2"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google