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Managing Stress © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc..

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Presentation on theme: "Managing Stress © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.."— Presentation transcript:

1 Managing Stress © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 Learning Outcomes Define stress.
Describe how your body responds to stress. Explain how stress can harm your body. List the kinds of harm stress can cause to your cardiovascular, immune, and other body systems. Identify the major sources of stress. Describe effective tools for stress management. Create your own stress management plan. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 What Is Stress? Stress: a disturbance in an individual's physical and/or emotional state that affects the body's "normal" physiological state and to which the body must try to adapt Stressor: any event or circumstance to which the body tries to adapt; may be threatening, unfamiliar, disturbing, or exciting Stress response: a set of physiological changes that the body initiates in response to a stressor Eustress: positive stress (can be motivating) Distress: negative stress (can diminish wellness) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 How Does My Body Respond to Stress?
The Stress Response: The senses and brain perceive a threat. The brain sends a signal, releasing several hormones into the bloodstream. More hormones are released by the adrenal glands. These "stress hormones" trigger the conversion of stored fat, protein, and carbohydrates into glucose for energy to respond. The physiological result is the "fight or flight" syndrome: The body reaches a heightened state of stress-related readiness to either flee from or confront a threat. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 The Stress Response © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Why Does Stress Cause Harm?
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): A model of stress reaction based on the idea of homeostasis, or the body's "steady state" Stages of the general adaptation syndrome: Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Credited with recognizing that sustained stress takes a toll on wellness Scientists now believe the stress response itself can damage the body © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 General Adaptation Syndrome
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Other Ways Stress Causes Harm
Allostasis The many changes that occur in the body to maintain homeostasis Allostatic Load Long-term wear and tear on the body caused by prolonged stress Can result from either too many or too few stress hormones released into the system as a result of sustained stress and stressors © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Which Kinds of Harm Can Stress Cause?
Cardiovascular disease risks, including heart rate, blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke Immune system function impairment—too much stress over a long period can negatively regulate cellular immune responses Varied physical effects such as weight gain, hair and skin problems, diabetes, digestive problems, and loss of libido Mental disability, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 Stress Can Damage a Woman's Health
Discuss symptoms of increased cortisol production and the physiological process of the body's production of cortisol. Discuss the signs and symptoms of stress and ways to decrease stress. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 What Are the Major Sources of Stress?
Sources of stress can be internal or external: Change Performance demands Inconsistent goals and behaviors Overload and burnout Hassles Environmental sources Relationships Racial, ethnic, or cultural isolation Conflict © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 Common Stressors © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 Effective Strategies for Stress Management
Employ internal resources for coping with stress: Self-esteem: A function of how you appraise the stress in your life; stems directly from a sense of positive self-regard Self-efficacy: Also a function of how you appraise the stress in your life; differs from self-esteem in that the focus is your confidence in your performance abilities Hardiness: Psychological hardiness includes the characteristics of control, commitment, and willingness to embrace challenge; many researchers believe it is the foundation of remaining healthy through coping with stress © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Many Effective Stress-Management Techniques
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 Effective Strategies for Stress Management continued
Exercise, have fun, and explore recreational activity. Cultivate basic wellness measures: Eat right, get enough sleep, and avoid alcohol and tobacco. Change your behavioral responses: Assess the stressor. Change your response. Improve your coping strategies. Prepare before stressful events. Learn to downshift. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 Effective Strategies for Stress Management continued
Manage your time: Use a calendar. Multitask only when it's truly appropriate. Break up big tasks into a series of smaller ones. Clean your desk. Accommodate your natural rhythms. Avoid overcommitment. Avoid interruptions. Remember that time is precious. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 Effective Strategies for Stress Management continued
Manage your finances: Develop a realistic budget of monthly expenses and what you really need. Pay bills immediately and consider online banking to avoid late fees. Take money-management seminars and courses. Avoid unsolicited credit card offers. Take on as little new debt as possible. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 Effective Strategies for Stress Management continued
Manage your thinking: Worry constructively. Perceive life as changeable. Consider alternatives. Moderate your expectations. Don't rush into action. Take things less seriously. Manage negative emotions and anger. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 Effective Strategies for Stress Management continued
Seek social support: Understand the importance of social connectedness. Be aware of socially influenced behaviors. Use relaxation techniques: Relaxation breathing Progressive muscle relaxation Meditation Yoga Biofeedback Hypnosis Consider spiritual development. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 Meditating to Happiness
Discuss the positive effects of meditation as supported by the research in the video. What are differences in disposition between those who meditate and those who do not meditate? Discuss the positive impact meditation may have in the workplace or in school settings. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Beginner's Guide to Yoga
What are the physiological, physical, and mental benefits of yoga? Which style of yoga is beneficial for those who want to maximize the mental benefits of yoga? What style is beneficial for those who want to maximize weight loss? How do you choose the best way to practice yoga if you are a beginner? Discuss the benefits and barriers to the three modes of instruction: 1) group instruction; 2) private instruction; 3) DVD instruction. How do you determine if yoga is the type of exercise you should pursue based on your fitness goals? How do you determine which style of yoga (power, iyengar, hatha, kundalini) is right for you? © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 How Can I Create My Own Stress-Management Plan?
Step 1: Assess Yourself Use Lab 9.1 to get started. Step 2: Plan for Change Select one stress-producing behavior pattern to focus on changing. Step 3: Chart Your Progress Use a journal to record progress, setbacks, data, and your thoughts on the process. Use it to make a plan and revise as needed. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

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