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Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

2 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood (1/4)
Piaget’s cognitive development theory Adaptation through action Sensorimotor Stage: towards the symbolic process (0-2 years) Baby learning from TV?

3 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood (2/4)
Piaget’s cognitive development theory (cont’d) Beyond Piaget Violation of Expectation (Renee Baillargeon) Core Knowledge

4 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood (3/4)
Information processing theory Standard 3-stage model Attention and memory Vigotsky: social context of early cognitive development

5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood (4/4)
Individual differences in early cognitive development Bayley Scales Universal preschool? Language Development The course of development Theories

6 Piaget’s theory of cognitive development:
Building Schemes Adaptation Building schemes through direct interaction with environment Assimilation Using current schemes to interpret the external world Accommodation Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment

7 Piaget: Assimilation and Accommodation
Assimilation: applying familiar schemes Accommodation: learning new schemes Equilibration: alternating between assimilation and accommodation

8 Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to age 2 years Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration Circular reactions © SHS Photography/Shutterstock

9 Piaget: Sensorimotor Substages
Reflexive schemes (birth–1 month) Newborn reflexes Primary circular reactions (1–4 months) Simple motor habits centered around own body Secondary circular reactions (4–8 months) Repetition of interesting effects; imitation of familiar behaviors Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8–12 months) Intentional, goal-directed behavior; beginning object permanence Tertiary circular reactions (12–18 months) Exploration of object properties through novel actions Mental representation (18 months–2 years) Internal depictions of objects and events; advanced object permanence (invisible displacement)

10 Piaget: Object Permanence
Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight Revealed by retrieval of hidden objects Awareness not yet complete: A-not-B search error Full understanding revealed by problems involving invisible displacement

11 Piaget: Mental Representation
Internal depictions: images (objects, people, spaces) concepts (groups of similar objects or events) Representation permits advanced object permanence deferred imitation make-believe play © mitgirl/Fotolia

12 Beyond Piaget: Violation-of-Expectation
Figure 5.1 (Adapted from R. Baillargeon & J. DeVos, 1991, “Object Permanence in Young Infants: Further Evidence,” Child Development, 62, p © 1991, John Wiley and Sons. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley & Sons Ltd.) Figure 5.1 Testing young infants for understanding of object permanence using the violation-of-expectation method Video: Renee Baillargeon's research

13 Deferred Imitation 6 weeks: imitates facial expressions
6–9 months: copies novel actions with objects 12–14 months: imitates rationally 14–18 months: imitates actions that are intended but not completed

14 Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage
Capacities that develop when Piaget suggested Object search A-not-B Make-believe play Capacities that develop earlier than Piaget suggested Object permanence Deferred imitation Problem solving by analogy Some suggest infants are born with core knowledge in several domains.

15 Core Knowledge Perspective
Babies are born with a set of core domains of thought: innate, special-purpose knowledge systems permit a quick grasp of related information support rapid early development © mocker_bat/Fotolia

16 Suggested Domains of Core Knowledge
Physical Linguistic Psychological Numerical © SergiyN/Shutterstock

17 Infants’ Numerical Knowledge
Research suggests that infants can discriminate quantities up to 3 perform simple addition and subtraction represent large-number values Findings are controversial © Rehan Qureshi/Shutterstock

18 Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage Revisited
(Compare to Table 5.1) © Rehan Qureshi/Shutterstock

19 III. Information Processing
Sensory register: sights and sounds are represented directly, stored briefly Short-term memory store: attended-to information is retained briefly and “worked” on working memory: number of items that can be briefly held in mind while engaging in some effort to manipulate them Long-term memory: permanent knowledge base

20 3-Stage Model of Information Processing
Figure 5.3 Model of the human information-processing system Figure 5.3

21 Managing the Cognitive System’s Activities
Central executive directs flow of information coordinates incoming information with information already in the system selects, applies, and monitors strategies that facilitate memory storage, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving Automatic processes require no space in working memory can be done while focusing on other information

22 Improvement in the Cognitive System
Increase in basic capacity of memory stores, especially working memory Increase in speed with which information is worked on Improvements in executive function

23 Cognitive Gains in Infancy and Toddlerhood
Attention improved efficiency, ability to shift focus less attraction to novelty, improved sustained attention Memory longer retention intervals development of recall by second half of first year Categorization gradual shift from perceptual to conceptual categorization in toddlerhood

24 Development of Categorization
Perceptual First categories are based on physical properties By 6 months, babies categorize on basis of two correlated features Conceptual Shift to categories based on common function or behavior during toddlerhood

25 III. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Complex mental activities develop through joint activities with more mature members of child’s society Zone of proximal development: tasks too difficult for child to do alone but possible with help of more skilled partners © Zurijeta/Shutterstock

26 IV. Individual Differences: Infant and Toddler Intelligence Tests
Bayley Scales: Cognitive Language Motor Social-Emotional Adaptive Behavior Predict later intelligence poorly Largely used for screening © mangostock/Fotolia

27 Computing Intelligence Test Scores
Intelligence quotient (IQ): comparison with typical performance for age standardization normal distribution: bell-shaped curve Infant tests and later performance: largely used for screening

28 Normal Distribution of IQ Scores
Figure 5.6 Normal distribution of intelligence test scores Figure 5.6

29 Developmentally Appropriate Infant and Toddler Child Care
Physical setting Toys and equipment Caregiver–child ratio Daily activities Interaction among adults and children Caregiver qualifications Relationships with parents Licensing and accreditation © kaarsten/Shutterstock

30 IQ Scores of Treatment and Control Children in the Carolina Abecedarian Project
Figure 5.7 IQ scores of treatment and control children from infancy to 21 years in the Carolina Abecedarian Project Figure 5.7 (Adapted from Campbell et al., 2001.)

31 Costs and Benefits per Participant of Preschool: “First Five” summary
a commission established as a result of the passage of Proposition 10 (California) Funded by tobacco tax revenue for education, health and childcare programs serving children 0-5 and their families, including universal pre-kindergarten ”A large and growing body of research shows that investing in high-quality pre-kindergarten education yields benefits for children, schools, and communities… “Oklahoma, another state with pre-k for all children, has documented significant academic gains across all income and racial groups. Participation in pre-k was a more powerful predictor of children’s pre-reading and pre-writing scores than demographic variables such as race, family income, and mother’s education level.” Figure 5.7 IQ scores of treatment and control children from infancy to 21 years in the Carolina Abecedarian Project

32 Costs and Benefits per Participant of Preschool: “First Five” summary
" Figure 5.7 IQ scores of treatment and control children from infancy to 21 years in the Carolina Abecedarian Project

33 V. Theories of Language Development
Nativist (Chomsky) Language Acquisition Device (LAD) contains universal grammar infants biologically prepared to learn language Interactionist interaction between inner capacities and environmental influences social-interactionist view: emphasizes social skills and language experiences

34 Getting Ready to Talk First speech sounds: Becoming a communicator:
cooing babbling Becoming a communicator: joint attention give-and-take preverbal gestures © Pavel L Photo and Video/Shutterstock

35 Starting to Talk First words: Two-word utterances: underextension
overextension Two-word utterances: telegraphic speech copies adult word pairings © pavla/Shutterstock

36 Individual and Cultural Differences
Gender Temperament Environment: verbal stimulation characteristics of native language © Mastering_Microstock/Shutterstock

37 Supporting Early Language Learning
With infants Respond to coos and babbles Establish joint attention Use infant-directed speech Play social games With toddlers Engage in joint make-believe Engage in frequent conversations Read often and talk about books

38 Readers may view, browse, and/or download material for temporary copying purposes only, provided these uses are for noncommercial personal purposes. Except as provided by law, this material may not be further reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, adapted, performed, displayed, published, or sold in whole or in part, without prior written permission from the publisher. 38

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