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Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

2 Piaget’s Theory: Schemes
Psychological structures Organized ways of making sense of experience Schemes change with age: first schemes: sensorimotor action patterns later schemes: deliberate and creative

3 Building Schemes Adaptation Building schemes through direct interaction with environment Assimilation Using current schemes to interpret the external world Accommodation Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment

4 Assimilation and Accommodation
Cognitive equilibrium: steady, comfortable state characterized by assimilation more than accommodation Cognitive disequilibrium: state of cognitive discomfort shift from assimilation toward accommodation, then back toward assimilation

5 Sensorimotor Stage Birth to age 2 years
Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration Circular reactions © SHS Photography/Shutterstock

6 Sensorimotor Substages
Reflexive schemes (birth–1 month) Newborn reflexes Primary circular reactions (1–4 months) Simple motor habits centered around own body Secondary circular reactions (4–8 months) Repetition of interesting effects; imitation of familiar behaviors Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8–12 months) Intentional, goal-directed behavior; beginning object permanence Tertiary circular reactions (12–18 months) Exploration of object properties through novel actions Mental representation (18 months–2 years) Internal depictions of objects and events; advanced object permanence (invisible displacement)

7 Object Permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight Revealed by retrieval of hidden objects Awareness not yet complete: A-not-B search error Full understanding revealed by problems involving invisible displacement

8 Mental Representation
Internal depictions: images (objects, people, spaces) concepts (groups of similar objects or events) Representation permits advanced object permanence deferred imitation make-believe play © mitgirl/Fotolia

9 Violation-of-Expectation Method
Figure 5.1 Testing young infants for understanding of object permanence using the violation-of-expectation method Figure 5.1 (Adapted from R. Baillargeon & J. DeVos, 1991, “Object Permanence in Young Infants: Further Evidence,” Child Development, 62, p © 1991, John Wiley and Sons. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley & Sons Ltd.)

10 Deferred Imitation 6 weeks: imitates facial expressions
6–9 months: copies novel actions with objects 12–14 months: imitates rationally 14–18 months: imitates actions that are intended but not completed

11 Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage
Capacities that develop when Piaget suggested Object search A-not-B Make-believe play Capacities that develop earlier than Piaget suggested Object permanence Deferred imitation Problem solving by analogy Some suggest infants are born with core knowledge in several domains.

12 Core Knowledge Perspective
Babies are born with a set of core domains of thought: innate, special-purpose knowledge systems permit a quick grasp of related information support rapid early development © mocker_bat/Fotolia

13 Suggested Domains of Core Knowledge
Physical Linguistic Psychological Numerical © SergiyN/Shutterstock

14 Infants’ Numerical Knowledge
Research suggests that infants can discriminate quantities up to 3 perform simple addition and subtraction represent large-number values Findings are controversial © Rehan Qureshi/Shutterstock

15 Information Processing
Sensory register: sights and sounds are represented directly, stored briefly Short-term memory store: attended-to information is retained briefly and “worked” on working memory: number of items that can be briefly held in mind while engaging in some effort to manipulate them Long-term memory: permanent knowledge base

16 Model of Information Processing
Figure 5.3 Model of the human information-processing system Figure 5.3

17 Managing the Cognitive System’s Activities
Central executive directs flow of information coordinates incoming information with information already in the system selects, applies, and monitors strategies that facilitate memory storage, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving Automatic processes require no space in working memory can be done while focusing on other information

18 Improvements in the Cognitive System
Increase in basic capacity of memory stores, especially working memory Increase in speed with which information is worked on Improvements in executive function

19 Cognitive Gains in Infancy and Toddlerhood
Attention improved efficiency, ability to shift focus less attraction to novelty, improved sustained attention Memory longer retention intervals development of recall by second half of first year Categorization gradual shift from perceptual to conceptual categorization in toddlerhood

20 Development of Categorization
Perceptual First categories are based on physical properties By 6 months, babies categorize on basis of two correlated features Conceptual Shift to categories based on common function or behavior during toddlerhood

21 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
Complex mental activities develop through joint activities with more mature members of child’s society Zone of proximal development: tasks too difficult for child to do alone but possible with help of more skilled partners © Zurijeta/Shutterstock

22 Infant and Toddler Intelligence Tests
Bayley Scales: Cognitive Language Motor Social-Emotional Adaptive Behavior Predict later intelligence poorly Largely used for screening © mangostock/Fotolia

23 Computing Intelligence Test Scores
Intelligence quotient (IQ): comparison with typical performance for age standardization normal distribution: bell-shaped curve Infant tests and later performance: largely used for screening

24 Normal Distribution of IQ Scores
Figure 5.6 Normal distribution of intelligence test scores Figure 5.6

25 Features of a High-Quality Home Life
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) measures: parental emotional and verbal responsiveness parental acceptance of child organization of physical environment provision of appropriate play materials parental involvement with child opportunities for variety in daily stimulation

26 Developmentally Appropriate Infant and Toddler Child Care
Physical setting Toys and equipment Caregiver–child ratio Daily activities Interaction among adults and children Caregiver qualifications Relationships with parents Licensing and accreditation © kaarsten/Shutterstock

27 IQ Scores of Treatment and Control Children in the Carolina Abecedarian Project
Figure 5.7 IQ scores of treatment and control children from infancy to 21 years in the Carolina Abecedarian Project Figure 5.7 (Adapted from Campbell et al., 2001.)

28 Theories of Language Development
Nativist (Chomsky) Language Acquisition Device (LAD) contains universal grammar infants biologically prepared to learn language Interactionist interaction between inner capacities and environmental influences social-interactionist view: emphasizes social skills and language experiences

29 Getting Ready to Talk First speech sounds: Becoming a communicator:
cooing babbling Becoming a communicator: joint attention give-and-take preverbal gestures © Pavel L Photo and Video/Shutterstock

30 Starting to Talk First words: Two-word utterances: underextension
overextension Two-word utterances: telegraphic speech copies adult word pairings © pavla/Shutterstock

31 Individual and Cultural Differences
Gender Temperament Environment: verbal stimulation characteristics of native language © Mastering_Microstock/Shutterstock

32 Supporting Early Language Learning
With infants Respond to coos and babbles Establish joint attention Use infant-directed speech Play social games With toddlers Engage in joint make-believe Engage in frequent conversations Read often and talk about books

33 Readers may view, browse, and/or download material for temporary copying purposes only, provided these uses are for noncommercial personal purposes. Except as provided by law, this material may not be further reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, adapted, performed, displayed, published, or sold in whole or in part, without prior written permission from the publisher. 33

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