2 Genetic Variation You can compare dogs of every breed imaginable! There is an enormous range of characteristics that are the result of genetic variation.The differences among breeds of dogs are so great that someone might think that many of these breeds are different species.They're not, of course, but where did such differences come from?
3 Selective Breeding The answer, of course, is that we did it. Humans have kept and bred dogs for thousands of years, always looking to produce animals that might be better hunters, better retrievers, or better companions.By selective breeding, allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to produce the next generation, humans have produced many different breeds of dogs.
4 Selective BreedingHumans use selective breeding, which takes advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation in plants, animals, and other organisms, to pass desired traits on to the next generation of organisms.Nearly all domestic animals—including horses, cats, and farm animals—and most crop plants have been produced by selective breeding.
5 Selective BreedingThe ancestor of modern corn had tiny kernels, each protected by a tough husk.Domestication of maize, which began thousands of years ago, selected for large sheathed cobs containing large kernels without husks.
6 HybridizationHybridization - Breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms.Hybrids, the individuals produced by such crosses, are often hardier than either of the parents.
7 Zeedonk - Zebra and Donkey Liger – Lion and TigerJaglion- Jaguar and Lion
8 InbreedingTo maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms, breeders often use a technique known as inbreeding.Inbreeding is the continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics.The many breeds of dogs—from beagles to poodles—are maintained by inbreeding. Inbreeding helps to ensure that the characteristics that make each breed unique will be preserved.
9 Risks of InbreedingAlthough inbreeding is useful in retaining a certain set of characteristics, it does have its risks.Most of the members of a breed are genetically similar.Because of this, there is always a chance that a cross between two individuals will bring together two recessive alleles for a genetic defect.Serious problems in many breeds of dogs, including blindness and joint deformities in German shepherds and golden retrievers, have resulted from excessive inbreeding.
10 Increasing VariationSelective breeding would be nearly impossible without the wide variation that is found in natural populations.This is one of the reasons biologists are interested in preserving the diversity of plants and animals in the wild.However, sometimes breeders want more variation than exists in nature. Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a population by inducing mutations, which are the ultimate source of genetic variability.
11 Increasing VariationAs you may recall, mutations are inheritable changes in DNA.Mutations occur spontaneously, but breeders can increase the mutation rate by using radiation and chemicals.Many mutations are harmful to the organism.With luck and perseverance, however, breeders can produce a few mutants—individuals with mutations—with desirable characteristics that are not found in the original population.
12 Producing New Kinds of Plants Drugs that prevent chromosomal separation during meiosis have been particularly useful in plant breeding.Sometimes these drugs produce cells that have double or triple the normal number of chromosomes.Plants grown from such cells are called polyploid because they have many sets of chromosomes.Polyploidy: the condition of having three, four, or more sets of chromosomes instead of the two present in diploids.
13 Polyploidy Polyploidy is usually fatal in animals. However, for reasons that are not clear, plants are much better at tolerating extra sets of chromosomes.Polyploidy may instantly produce new species of plants that are often larger and stronger than their diploid relatives.
14 Genetic EngineeringGenetic Engineering - Process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms.
15 Genetic Engineering: Cutting DNA DNA molecules from most organisms are much too large to be analyzed, so biologists cut them precisely into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes.Hundreds of restriction enzymes are known, and each one cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides.A restriction enzyme will cut a DNA sequence only if it matches the sequence precisely.
16 Genetic Engineering: Separating DNA Gel electrophoresis - Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gelWhen the power is turned on, DNA molecules, which are negatively charged, move toward the positive end of the gel.The smaller the DNA fragment, the faster and farther it moves.
17 Gel Electrophoresis Uses of gel electrophoresis: Compare the genomes, or gene composition, of different organisms or different individuals.Locate and identify one particular gene out of the tens of thousands of genes in an individual's genome.
19 Recombinant DNARecombinant DNA - DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources.Can join “synthetic” sequences to “natural” ones using enzymes that splice DNA together.Is possible to take a gene from one organism and attach it to the DNA of another organism by using enzymes.
20 Bacteria Transformation Plasmid - Circular DNA molecule found in bacteria.Plasmids are found naturally in some bacteria and are useful for DNA transfer. Why?It’s DNA sequence promote plasmid replication.Ensures the transformed bacteria will be replicated.Plasmids contain a genetic marker —a gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid and the foreign DNA from those that don't.
22 Is it Possible to Transfer Whole Genes From One Organism to Another? In 1986, American researcher Steven Howell transferred the gene for luciferase into tobacco plant cells.Luciferase is an enzyme that allows fireflies to glow.The plants glowed in the dark!
23 Transgenic OrganismsTransgenic - Term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms.Transgenic BacteriaReproduce rapidly and are easy to grow.Produce a host of important substances such as insulin, growth hormone, and clotting factor which are used to treat serious human diseases and conditions.Oil eating bacteria help clean up oil spillsBacteria transformed with the genes for human proteins now produce these important compounds cheaply and in great abundance.
24 Transgenic Organisms Transgenic Animals Used to study genes and to improve the food supply.Mice have been produced with human genes that make their immune systems act similarly to those of humans.Allows scientists to study the effects of diseases on the human immune system.Some transgenic livestock now have extra copies of growth hormone genes.Grow faster and produce leaner meat
26 Transgenic Organisms Transgenic Plants Are now an important part of our food supply.In the year 2000, 52% of the soybeans and 25% of the corn grown in the US were transgenic, or genetically modified (GM).Some GM plants contain genes that produce a natural insecticide.The crops do not have to be sprayed with synthetic pesticides.Other crop plants have genes that enable them to resist weed-killing chemicals.Allows crops to survive while weeds are still controlled.
27 CloningClone - Member of a population of genetically identical organisms produced from a single cell.Cloned colonies of bacteria and other microorganisms are easy to grow, but this is not always true of multicellular organisms, especially animals.
28 Cloning AnimalsIn 1997, Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut stunned biologists by announcing that he had cloned a sheep, which he later named Dolly.How did he do it?Take the nucleus of any female’s egg cell and remove it.This cell is fused with a somatic body cell (this is the cell you want to make a clone of) taken from another adult.The fused cell is tricked into thinking its fertilized and begins to divide.The embryo is then placed in the reproductive system of a foster surrogate mother, where it develops normally.
29 CloningCloned cows, pigs, mice, and other mammals have been produced by similar techniques.Researchers hope that cloning will enable them to make copies of transgenic animals and even help save endangered species.On the other hand, the technology is controversial for many reasons, including studies suggesting that cloned animals may suffer from a number of genetic defects and health problems.The use of cloning technology on humans, while scientifically possible, raises serious ethical and moral issues that have caused many people to oppose such work. As techniques improve, these important issues will become even more pressing.
30 CloneMember of a population of genetically identical organisms produced from a single cell.CC with surrogate momGenetic momCC = Copy Cat (the clone)CC gives birth to 3 healthy kittens