Presentation on theme: "SC B-4.9 EXEMPLIFY WAYS THAT INTRODUCE NEW GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS INTO AN ORGANISM OR A POPULATION BY APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF MODERN GENETICS GENETIC."— Presentation transcript:
SC B-4.9 EXEMPLIFY WAYS THAT INTRODUCE NEW GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS INTO AN ORGANISM OR A POPULATION BY APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF MODERN GENETICS GENETIC ENGINEERING
CN Page 104 Notebook EQ: How has technology allowed humans to genetically alter an organism?
Changing the Living World Selective breeding: allowing only those individuals with desirable traits to reproduce Humans use it in animals, plants, & other organisms
Hybridization A breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms Usually are: Hardier More disease tolerant
Inbreeding The continued breeding of individuals with similar traits Increases the incidence of recessive traits
Increasing Variation Breeders can increase genetic variation in a population by inducing mutations (the ultimate source of genetic variation) Bacteria Small size, short life cycle makes them easy to radiate get desirable mutation Example: Bacteria used in oil spills digest oil Plants Polyploidy induced by chemicals Bananas, Citrus Fruit
Key Questions How does selective breeding work? Why would inducing mutations in an organism be a good idea?
Applications of Genetic Engineering Possible to transfer genes from one organism to another 1 st done in 1986 by Howell Transferred gene from firefly tobacco plant
Transgenic Bacteria Bacteria reproduce rapidly & easy to grow use restriction enzymes to open bacterial plasmid or loop of DNA then insert gene used to make human forms of proteins Insulin Growth Hormone Clotting Factor
Transgenic Animals Mice produced with human genes that makes their immune systems act like humans Scientist able to study effects of diseases or treatments on mice before testing on humans Some livestock now have extra copies of gene for Growth Hormone grow faster & produce leaner meat, more milk