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Power to Predict Power to Choose Power to Manipulate

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Presentation on theme: "Power to Predict Power to Choose Power to Manipulate"— Presentation transcript:

1 Power to Predict Power to Choose Power to Manipulate
Genetic Technology Power to Predict Power to Choose Power to Manipulate

2 A Perfect Family?

3 Designer babies

4 Ethics Clip

5 Genetic Technologies Genetic Testing
PGD – Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Cloning DNA Databases/DNA Fingerprinting “Savior” babies “Designer” babies/ IVF Genetically modified animals and plants

6 Ethical Questions Should we use our powers? For what purpose?
Should there be limitations? What are the possible consequences? - Socially? - Economically? - Environmentally?

7 13-1 Changing the Living World
1. Selective Breeding – method of improving a species by allowing only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation Purpose – taking advantage of naturally occurring genetic variation in organisms to pass desired traits on

8 Selectively bred Hybridization/Inbreeding
Animals: horses, cats dogs, pigs, cows Plants: potatoes, corn, tomatoes, oranges, apples

9 Hybridization 5. Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms. 6. Ex: Burbank combined the disease resistance of one plant with the food-producing capacity of another –Russet Burbank potato. He also hybridized the Shasta Daisy

10 Hybridization – Interesting Facts
Today, somewhere around 99 percent of U.S. corn is grown from hybrid seed. Fungus resistance Early maturity Heat tolerance

11 Inbreeding 7. Breeding of individuals with similar characteristics 8. Ex: Dog Breeding – Poodle, Golden Retriever 9. Risks of inbreeding – since most members of a breed are genetically similar, there is a chance of bringing together two recessive alleles – genetic defect. Ex: blindness, joint deformities in German shepherds and golden retrievers.

12 Inducing Mutations 10. Breeders might induce mutations to increase genetic variation in a population that might produce mutants with desirable characteristics that aren’t found in the original population Since the 1950s, over 2,000 crop varieties have been developed by inducing mutations to randomly alter genetic traits and then selecting for improved types among the progeny. Ex: Ruby Star red grapefruit

13 Inducing Mutations – How?
11. Mutations can be induced by using radiation and chemicals

14 Bacteria - mutations 12. Bacteria are useful when producing mutations because their small size enables millions of organisms to be treated with radiation or chemicals at the same time. This increases the chances of producing a useful mutant. 13: Ex: oil-digesting bacteria

15 Polyploidy Plants 14. Polyploidy Plants are produced by using drugs that prevent chromosomal separation during meiosis. 15. Polyploidy Plants are desirable because they are often stronger and larger

16 Manipulating DNA Genetic Engineering- making changes in the DNA code of a living organism Biologists are now able to rewrite an organism’s DNA No longer limited by the variation already in nature

17 Tools of Genetic Engineering
Perform the following tasks: DNA Extraction Cutting DNA Separating DNA Reading the Sequence Making Copies Recombination

18 DNA Extraction DNA Extraction Cells are opened and
the DNA is separated from The other cell parts

19 Cutting DNA Cutting DNA – restriction enzymes
DNA molecules are too large to be analyzed Each restriction enzyme cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

20 Separating DNA Gel electrophoresis (Virtual Lab)
Mixture placed at one end of a porous gel Electric voltage DNA has (-) charge Migrates to (+) end Smaller DNA – faster Compare genomes Locate genes

21 Reading the Sequence Reading the Sequence
Single strand of DNA with unknown sequence added to test tube DNA polymerase, A T C G Makes one new DNA strand Chemical dyes – tags Gel electrophoresis Order tells sequence of bases Study of specific genes, compare genes w/other organisms, learn functions of genes

22 Making Copies PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Song GTCA
Primers – a place for DNA polymerase to start DNA heated – strands separate Cooled Makes copies between primers Copies also serve as templates Millions of copies easily

23 Cutting and Pasting Recombinant DNA – produced by combining DNA from different sources Cell Transformation – cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. This external DNA becomes a component of the cell’s DNA Plasmid – small circular DNA molecule in some bacteria

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