Introduction (page 459) Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Botswana share several things. All are landlocked. A large plateau covers most of them. They all have a mild climate.
Zambia The Zambezi River crosses Zambia. The Kariba Dam spans the river, and it is also the source of the spectacular Victoria Falls. A large area of copper mines, known as a copper belt, stretches across northern Zambia. One of the world’s major producers of copper, Zambia relies on it for more than 80 percent of its income
Zambia As a result, when world copper prices go down, Zambia’s income goes down too. Zambia, once a British colony called Northern Rhodesia, gained independence in 1964. The country’s people belong to more than 70 ethnic groups and speak many languages. Urban areas, such as Lusaka, the capital, are home to workers in mining and service industries
Malawi Green plains and grasslands cover the western areas of Malawi. Vast herds of wild animals roam national parks and animal reserves. Lake Malawi holds about 500 fish species, more than any other inland body of water in the world. Malawi has few mineral resources and little industry. Small farmers grow tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts, and sorghum.
Malawi Donations, loans, and foreign aid help support Malawi’s people. Famous Scottish missionary David Livingstone arrived in the mid-1800s. Livingstone was the first European to explore the region and spread the Christian religion.. Today most of Malawi’s people are Protestant Christians because of missionaries.
Malawi Malawi, once a British colony called Nyasaland, became independent in 1964. Malawi is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa.
Zimbabwe Mining gold, copper, iron ore, and asbestos provides much of Zimbabwe’s income. Large plantations grow coffee, cotton, and tobacco.
Zimbabwe A serious challenge to Zimbabwe’s economy comes from the spread of AIDS. People who have the disease often cannot work to support their families. Many children have been orphaned by AIDS. Zimbabwe takes its name from an ancient African city and trading center— Great Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe This remarkable stone fortress was built by an ethnic group called the Shona in the A.D. 1100s to 1400s. Until the 1800s, this group and the Ndebele ruled large parts of south central Africa. The British controlled the area in the 1890s and called it Rhodesia
Zimbabwe It was named after Cecil Rhodes, a British businessman who expanded British rule in Africa. Europeans owned all the best land and, as a result, Africans fought to end British rule.
Zimbabwe In 1980 free elections brought an independent government to power. The country was renamed Zimbabwe.
Botswana The Kalahari Desert spreads over southwestern Botswana. The Okavango River in the northwest forms one of the largest swamp areas in the world. This area of shifting streams has much wildlife. Diamonds account for more than 75 percent of Botswana’s export income.
Botswana Tourism is also important. The country grows only about half the food it needs and must import the rest. Many people work in South Africa to earn a living. After nearly 80 years of British colonial rule, Botswana became independent in 1966. Today Botswana has one of Africa’s strongest democracies