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Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Sub-Saharan Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sub-Saharan Africa


3 Newest country South Sudan
Capital: Juba


5 Geography The worlds second largest continent
Most nations of any continent Newest country South Sudan Location and Effects Between two oceans; Atlantic & Indian – linked and isolated Part of major trade routes since ancient times

6 Regions North Africa – above the Sahara Desert Sub-Saharan Africa
Linked to the Middle East culturally Sub-Saharan Africa West Africa – extends into Atlantic Part of major slave trade routes to new world Central Africa – home to Africa’s tropical rain forests Southern Africa – crucial to trade b/w oceans East Africa – Great Rift Valley, fertile land

7 Landforms The land made exploration difficult for Europeans = natural barriers Africa is a continent of Plateaus Escarpments: steep cliffs & basins, swamps, lakes Mountains: edges – Atlas Mts, Drakensberg Range, Mt. Kilimanjaro – highest mountain in Africa Great Rift Valley – a giant fault – Red Sea to Zambezi River Series of mountain, valleys, lakes Rich in natural resources, fertile soil Hard to mine and transport because of the rough terrain Olduvai Gorge: bone that belonged to the ancestors of modern people Deserts: Sahara (largest), Kalahari Coastal Plains

8 Nile, Congo (Zaire), Niger, Zambezi
Rivers Provide food, transportation, irrigation and hydroelectric power Cataracts: waterfalls; river rapids Major Rivers Nile, Congo (Zaire), Niger, Zambezi

9 Nile River – East Africa
Longest flowing river in the world 4,160 miles – flows north Home to early civilizations Predictable floods supported huge population Aswan High Dam Pros – Hydroelectric Power, Irrigation Cons – Farmers upstream now need to purchase fertilizers

10 Nile River Route and its tributaries

11 Zaire (Congo) River Niger River West Africa Central Africa
Provides hydroelectric power Cannot be navigated with boats Poor for trade Niger River West Africa Provides water for irrigation Floods predictably

12 Zaire (Congo) River

13 Niger River

14 Zambezi River Southern Africa
Creates Victoria Falls, 1 mile wide and 420 ft. high, between Zambia and Zimbabwe The Kariba Dam provides hydroelectric power

15 Victoria Falls (Zambezi River)


17 Africa’s Natural Resources


19 Rich source of resources
Mineral Resources (see map) Gold and Diamonds Europeans mined much of their gold from west Africa beginning in the Age of Discovery Power-Wealth-Trade

20 Africa’s Resources Today
Gold and Diamonds – South Africa, D.R. Congo Copper – Zaire and Zambia Platinum and Cobalt – S. Africa, Zaire, and Botswana Oil – Nigeria, Botswana, Libya, Algeria, and Gabon Profits from African nations often end up in foreign countries

21 Adapting to the Land Societies developed near sources of water
hunting and gathering farming herding fishing urban Major urban areas developed on the Mediterranean Coast, western savannas, and East Coast

22 Language More than 1,000 languages
Groups only a few miles apart often speak different languages Small tribes migrated constantly and used their own language Scholars group African Languages into large families Trade and diffusion created new languages Swahili: Bantu and Arabic

23 Section 1 Quiz Answers E Hydroelectric Power D cataract A escarpment
C Nile B Aswan Dam 6. B the Pacific Ocean 7. A mountains 8. C 4,000 mile fault line that splits the continent 9. B halted annual flooding of the Nile 10. B seize a share of Africa’s gold and diamonds

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