Lesson 1 Guiding Question How have historical events affected the culture of Nigeria?
Nigeria Nigeria is multiethnic –More than 250 ethnic groups English is the official language –Ethnical languages spoken most
Hausa - Fulani Fulani conquered Hausa in early 1800s –Did not force their own culture on Hausa –Intermarried with each other –Now known as Hausa-Fulani Live in the countryside –Cattle herders, farmers, or craftspeople Trade has been important to the Hausa economy for hundreds of years
Yoruba Most urban of Nigeria’s ethnic groups –Began building cities around 1100 A.D. –Each city ruled by a king Lagos –One of Africa’s largest cities –Nigeria’s capital from 1960- 1991 Many live outside of cities today –Farmers, traders, or craftspeople –Live in compounds
Igbo Make a living as rural farmers –Live in small farming villages –Each village ruled democratically by a council of elders Many Igbo work for Nigeria’s city or national governments
Nigeria’s History Europeans began trading for slaves in Nigeria in the late 1400s. –By 1914, Great Britain had taken control Nigeria gained independence in 1960. –Capital was city of Lagos –Moved capital city to Abuja to unite the people as one nation Middle of the country Many ethnic groups live there
Tension in Nigeria Ethnic groups do not get along –Religion Hausa-Fulani are Muslim Yoruba are Muslim and Christian Igbo are mainly Christian –Tried to form their own country in 1967 –Oil Nigeria’s number one export Companies earn large profits; people do not benefit
Lesson 1 Guiding Question How have historical events affected the culture of Nigeria? –The Fulani conquered the Hausa and the two groups merged, forming the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group. –The diversity of Nigeria’s ethnic groups made unifying the country under one democratic government a challenge.
Lesson 2 Guiding Question What factors led to the development of different governments in Ghana?
Ghana Called the Gold Coast until 1957 Colonized by Great Britain –Wanted to control the colony’s economy –Exported cacao, used to make chocolate –Also exported timber and gold
The Colonial Years Because they were too busy producing exports, Gold Coast Africans stopped growing food crops –People could not grow enough food on their own Had to import food –Also spent less time making traditional crafts Had to buy factory-made goods from the British
Moving Toward Independence African colonies demanded independence during the 1900s –Kwame Nkrumah Thought Africans should rule themselves –Akan Used to a democracy –Always chose their own leader –Chose another if the leader did not rule fairly
Independence Achieved In 1957, Great Britain agreed to grant sovereignty to the people of the Gold Coast –Renamed the country Ghana –Nkrumah became first president
New Problems Arise Nkrumah overthrown by a military coup d’etat Why? –Borrowed money to start new plans –Built conference center and superhighway –Built a dam with the U.S. Problem? –Cocoa prices fell –Country could not repay its loans
A New Leader In 1981, Jerry Rawlings seized power –Ghana’s second long- term president –Stressed the importance of hard work and sacrifice Ghana’s economy began to grow
Lesson 2 Guiding Question What factors led to the development of different governments in Ghana? –Great Britain colonized the Gold Coast and controlled its economy. –Eventually, the people in the Gold Coast demanded their independence and formed a government and the new independent country of Ghana.
Lesson 3 Guiding Question What factors influence the ways in which the people of Mali make their living?
Mali’s Environment Very dry –Sahara covers one-third of the land Sahel –Lies between the Sahara and the savanna –Two sources of water Rain Water from rivers Savanna –One area in Mali that gets plenty of rain –Most Malians live in the Sahel or the savanna
The Sahel People herd animals and grow food –Grow cash crops as well Rains from May to August –Best time for farming Tombouctou –Used to be a wealthy center of trade –Fell off when European ships started trading along the coast
The Desert Spreads Mali has little industry –Trading, farming, and herding Desertification –The change of fertile land into land that is too dry or damaged to support life Reasons? –Overgrazing –Drought
Preserving the Environment United Nations formed a committee to stop desertification Tuareg –Nomads who lived in the Sahel –Moved to cities, settled on farms, and built camps Did not have enough water or food
Lesson 3 Guiding Question What factors influence the ways in which the people of Mali make their living? –Geography influences the ways Malians make a living – they use the resources of the Sahel to raise crops and animals.