2 The Land The Kimberley Diamond Mine South Africa’s mainland: Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Zambia, Angola, Malawi.South Africa’s islands: Madagascar, Seychelles, Comoros, MauritiusVaried terrain. Forests, Kalahari and Namib deserts, grasslands on large plateauPlatinum, uranium, gold, iron, diamondsThe Kimberley Diamond Mine
3 The Land 2 Zambezi (Victoria Falls) main river Prevailing winds blow off shore. Keep Namibia coast dry.Moist air from Indian Ocean blows west. Gives eastern South Africa humid subtropical climateDrakensburg Mts. create rain shadow for Kalahari
4 Cultures Long history of migration creates diversity 75% of South Africans are blackWhites are Dutch (Afrikaners), German, British, FrenchBlacks are Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, Ndebele, Temba, PondoMostly Christians. Some Islam, Hindu, animismMost widely spoken language of whites is Afrikaans.
5 Economy Most are subsistence farmers Raise sorghum, cassava, corn Manufacturing 2nd largest employerSouth Africa richest country, most industrialProduce cars, buses for AfricaEcotourism creates jobsCassavaSorghum
6 Early HistoryKhoisan first inhabitants, then Bantu farmers from West Africa 2,000 years ago with iron toolsShona built Great Zimbabwe, stone-walled capital, in late 1,000s. Traded gold.1400s Europeans looked for route to AsiaPortuguese found Cape of Good Hope1652 Dutch built Cape Town, started slavery.British, French, German also settled. Descendants known as BoersAfrikaans language combined European, Khoisan, Bantu tongues
7 Later History 1800s Great Britain took over. Forced Boers inland Zulu dominated inland but British won battleBritish empire outlawed slavery so traded ivory tusks, gold, diamonds
8 ApartheidEarly 1900s South Africa government made apartheid the law. (Next image click video)Blacks, Coloreds, Asians lived in poor homelands, travel restricted.Those working in city formed township slumsOpposed by African National Congress 1912Apartheid outlawed Nelson Mandela president. (Next image click video)
9 Culture Hundreds of ethnic groups Many languages. Most related to Khoisan (clicking sounds) or BantuEnglish official language in Namibia, Zimbabwe. Portuguese in MozambiqueReligion is Christian, traditional beliefsTswana of Botswana
10 Today’s IssuesMany infected with HIV/AIDS. 1 million Zambians. Life expectancy is 40 (Next image click video)Poverty, unemployment due to droughtsSouth Africa’s $3,000 GDP highest in region, but still black-white gapZimbabwe in economic collapse. Dictator Robert Mugabe took land from whitesWildlife tourism growing
11 Madagascar Physical Geography 4th largest island in the worldSeparated from mainland Africa millions of years ago12,000 plant species. 80 percent of wildlife native only to Madagascar, such as the lemur. (Click next image video)Coastal plain rises to interior mountainsOnly 5 percent of land is farmed – sugar cane, vanilla, cassava, beans, bananas, cloves, coffeeLogging is deforesting the country
12 Madagascar Political Geography Indonesians came on outriggers around 700 A.D. and mixed with Bantus from East Africa.French controlled it Now have republic with power-sharing governmentOnce called Malagasy RepublicMalagasy Mythology and Christianity main religionsNot wealthy country. Coffee exports and tourism have dropped.
13 South Africa Physical Geography 3 times the size of TexasVast plateau in center. Drakensburg Mountains east, Kalahari north, Namib to west, Great Escarpment (cliffs) south.Highveld (coarse grassland) occupies most of plateau. Mining, wheat, cornTop gold and diamond exporter in world. Has 80% world’s platinum.
14 South Africa Political Geography Iron-working tribes from Central Africa moved here in 1500s. (Khoi, San)1652 Dutch established trading post at Cape of Good Hope.British invaded 1815 and drove Dutch inland where they fought with British and native Zulus. Black South Africans lost all land and independence by late 1800s.1910 Union of South African states and apartheid became law1991 end of apartheid Nelson Mandela first black president.
15 Zimbabwe Physical Geography Lies on high plateau, tropical with mild climateLandlockedSlightly larger than Japan or MontanaVictoria Falls straddles the border with Zambia. Borders South Africa.
16 Zimbabwe Political Geography Walled city of Great Zimbabwe settled around 1000 A.D.1888 natives gave mining rights to EnglishEnglish crushed Shona and Ndebele and became British colony of South Rhodesia in 1923Independence as Rhodesia 1965 but world sanctioned because blacks had no powerFree elections 1979 brought president (dictator) Robert Mugabe to power. Land redistribution to blacks ruined the economy. Now one of poorest nations on earth with lowest life expectancy(Picture with chickens to follow will automatically begin a video)