4 Studying a Child’s World Chapter 1In discussing the Vignette: Victor, The Wild Boy of Aveyron, you can cover the topic of the natural child and the effects of society. Rousseau believed that a child is born in a pure, natural state and society ruins him. However, in the case of Victor, he was wild because he had never been socialized. Also, there is a possibility that Victor was autistic, as many of his symptoms indicate, and that he was abandoned because he was not functioning normally.
5 Guideposts for Study1 What is child development, and how has its study evolved?2 What are six fundamental points on which consensus has emerged?3 What do developmental scientists study?
6 Guideposts for Study4 What are the three major aspects and five periods of child development?5 What kinds of influences make one child different from another?
7 The Study of Child Development Early ApproachesBaby biographies: journals of individual childrenDarwin (1877) and Hall(1904/16) made child and adolescent study scientificStudying the Life Span:Conception to DeathIntegrates all aspects of human developmentBaby biographies became more scientific when Darwin wrote one about his son. He incorporated a developmental approach in his scientific study (1877).One of the most important and well-known initial researchers involved in Life Span studies was Terman, who studied the gifted over their life spans.
8 The Study of Child Development Then and Now New FrontiersTechnology, i.e. cameras, videos, tape recorders improved objectivity in studies.Basic Research (to answer questions) vs.Applied Research (to solve a practical problem)Newest technology enables researchers to study the processing of the brain as the infant or child is looking or listening to something (PET scan)Basic Research gives us information about specific aspects of development without worrying about how the information can be used in “real-life.”Applied Research sets out to apply that basic research in order to help solve problems in a practical way.
9 Do you see any ethical problems in the studies of Genie and Victor Do you see any ethical problems in the studies of Genie and Victor? Is the knowledge gained from such studies worth any possible damage to the individuals involved?
10 An Emerging Consensus Developmental Domains are Interrelated Normal Development is very DiverseBi-directional influence on children’s DevelopmentHistory and Culture strongly influence DevelopmentResilience to Trauma or DeprivationContinuity between Early and Late Development
11 An Emerging Consensus Developmental Domains are Interrelated: Different domains or aspects of development affect each other as they develop, i.e. eye-hand coordinationA problem in one can affect the development of the other, i.e. poor visual skills impacts the development of eye-hand coordinationDevelopment in one can enhance the development of the other
12 An Emerging Consensus Normal Development is very diverse: Differences in personality and temperamentDifferences in talents and abilitiesDifferences due to heredity or environmentDifferences in speed of maturationDifferences due to gender, social interactions, or disabilities
13 An Emerging Consensus Bi-Directional Influence on development: Children affect the reactions of adultsAdults respond to and react to childrenCulture and History Influences:Children develop within an ever-enlarging circle of influences, moving from family outward to neighborhood and cultureHistory is different at each point in time
14 Looking back, what were some of the most important influences on your development as a child? How might you be different if you had grown up in a culture other than your own?
15 An Emerging Consensus Continuity between Early and Late Development: Traumatic events early in life can have a residual effect upon later developmentChildren are remarkably resilient to early traumaDevelopment continues throughout the life-span with one stage moving on to another
16 The Study of Child Development: Basic Concepts Developmental Processes: ChangeQuantitative Change: Change in Amount, i.e.height, weight, vocabulary.Qualitative Change: Change in Kind, Structure, or Organization, i.e. understanding the world in a more mature way.
17 The Study of Child Development: Basic Concepts Developmental Processes: StabilityConstancy in certain Characteristics, i.e.Personality and Behavior.Ability to Modify some Characteristics is very limited, i.e. shyness.Ability to Modify other Characteristics is much larger,i.e. openness to new experiences.
18 Can you …Summarize six fundamental points ofagreement that have emerged from the studyof child development?
19 Domains of Development Physical DevelopmentGrowth: Body and BrainSensory Abilities and Motor SkillsCognitive DevelopmentLearning and MemoryLanguage and ThinkingPsychosocial DevelopmentPersonality Stability and ChangeSocial and Emotional Development
20 Can you distinguish between quantitative and qualitative development and give an example of each? Can you identify three domains of development and give examples of how they are interrelated?
22 Periods of Development: A Social Construction Prenatal: Conception to BirthInfancy and Toddler: Birth to age ThreeEarly Childhood: Three to Six YearsMiddle Childhood: Six to Eleven YearsAdolescent: Eleven to approx. Twenty YearsYoung Adulthood: Twenty to Forty YearsMiddle Adulthood: Forty to Sixty-Five YearsLate Adulthood: Sixty-Five Years and Older
23 Influences on Development Heredity, Environment, and MaturationNature vs. NurtureMaturation is the natural sequence of developmentMajor Contextual InfluencesFamily: Nuclear or ExtendedSocioeconomic Status: income, education, and occupationCulture: Society or GroupThe influences and interrelationships of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) depend upon several variables. The more impaired the child is due to heredity or trauma, the less influential can be the environment. In cases of abuse or neglect, normal development can be prevented. If the trauma or abuse occurs during certain critical or sensitive periods, the effects are much worse.
24 Major Contextual Influences Normative InfluencesNormative age-graded influences, i..e. biological or socialNormative history-graded, i.e. cohortNon-normative InfluencesIndividual events that impact the personEvents can be traumatic or happy
25 Major Contextual Influences Timing of InfluencesCritical Periods: Time when the presence or absence of an event can cause the greatest impact upon development.Sensitive Periods: Time when the presence or absence of an event can cause some impact upon development.Plasticity: the ability of the body and brain to modify or ameliorate negative impacts.