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A Child’s World: Infancy Through Adolescence , Ninth Edition

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Presentation on theme: "A Child’s World: Infancy Through Adolescence , Ninth Edition"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Child’s World: Infancy Through Adolescence , Ninth Edition
By Diane E. Papalia, Sally Wendkos Olds, Ruth Duskin Feldman

2 PowerPoint Presentation for Papalia et al A Child’s World
Prepared By Diane Feibel, Ed. D. University of Cincinnati

3 Entering a Child’s World

4 Studying a Child’s World
Chapter 1 In discussing the Vignette: Victor, The Wild Boy of Aveyron, you can cover the topic of the natural child and the effects of society. Rousseau believed that a child is born in a pure, natural state and society ruins him. However, in the case of Victor, he was wild because he had never been socialized. Also, there is a possibility that Victor was autistic, as many of his symptoms indicate, and that he was abandoned because he was not functioning normally.

5 Guideposts for Study 1 What is child development, and how has its study evolved? 2 What are six fundamental points on which consensus has emerged? 3 What do developmental scientists study?

6 Guideposts for Study 4 What are the three major aspects and five periods of child development? 5 What kinds of influences make one child different from another?

7 The Study of Child Development
Early Approaches Baby biographies: journals of individual children Darwin (1877) and Hall(1904/16) made child and adolescent study scientific Studying the Life Span:Conception to Death Integrates all aspects of human development Baby biographies became more scientific when Darwin wrote one about his son. He incorporated a developmental approach in his scientific study (1877). One of the most important and well-known initial researchers involved in Life Span studies was Terman, who studied the gifted over their life spans.

8 The Study of Child Development Then and Now
New Frontiers Technology, i.e. cameras, videos, tape recorders improved objectivity in studies. Basic Research (to answer questions) vs. Applied Research (to solve a practical problem) Newest technology enables researchers to study the processing of the brain as the infant or child is looking or listening to something (PET scan) Basic Research gives us information about specific aspects of development without worrying about how the information can be used in “real-life.” Applied Research sets out to apply that basic research in order to help solve problems in a practical way.

9 Do you see any ethical problems in the studies of Genie and Victor
Do you see any ethical problems in the studies of Genie and Victor? Is the knowledge gained from such studies worth any possible damage to the individuals involved?

10 An Emerging Consensus Developmental Domains are Interrelated
Normal Development is very Diverse Bi-directional influence on children’s Development History and Culture strongly influence Development Resilience to Trauma or Deprivation Continuity between Early and Late Development

11 An Emerging Consensus Developmental Domains are Interrelated:
Different domains or aspects of development affect each other as they develop, i.e. eye-hand coordination A problem in one can affect the development of the other, i.e. poor visual skills impacts the development of eye-hand coordination Development in one can enhance the development of the other

12 An Emerging Consensus Normal Development is very diverse:
Differences in personality and temperament Differences in talents and abilities Differences due to heredity or environment Differences in speed of maturation Differences due to gender, social interactions, or disabilities

13 An Emerging Consensus Bi-Directional Influence on development:
Children affect the reactions of adults Adults respond to and react to children Culture and History Influences: Children develop within an ever-enlarging circle of influences, moving from family outward to neighborhood and culture History is different at each point in time

14 Looking back, what were some of the most important influences on your development as a child?
How might you be different if you had grown up in a culture other than your own?

15 An Emerging Consensus Continuity between Early and Late Development:
Traumatic events early in life can have a residual effect upon later development Children are remarkably resilient to early trauma Development continues throughout the life-span with one stage moving on to another

16 The Study of Child Development: Basic Concepts
Developmental Processes: Change Quantitative Change: Change in Amount, i.e. height, weight, vocabulary. Qualitative Change: Change in Kind, Structure, or Organization, i.e. understanding the world in a more mature way.

17 The Study of Child Development: Basic Concepts
Developmental Processes: Stability Constancy in certain Characteristics, i.e. Personality and Behavior. Ability to Modify some Characteristics is very limited, i.e. shyness. Ability to Modify other Characteristics is much larger,i.e. openness to new experiences.

18 Can you … Summarize six fundamental points of agreement that have emerged from the study of child development?

19 Domains of Development
Physical Development Growth: Body and Brain Sensory Abilities and Motor Skills Cognitive Development Learning and Memory Language and Thinking Psychosocial Development Personality Stability and Change Social and Emotional Development

20 Can you distinguish between quantitative and qualitative development and give an example of each?
Can you identify three domains of development and give examples of how they are interrelated?


22 Periods of Development: A Social Construction
Prenatal: Conception to Birth Infancy and Toddler: Birth to age Three Early Childhood: Three to Six Years Middle Childhood: Six to Eleven Years Adolescent: Eleven to approx. Twenty Years Young Adulthood: Twenty to Forty Years Middle Adulthood: Forty to Sixty-Five Years Late Adulthood: Sixty-Five Years and Older

23 Influences on Development
Heredity, Environment, and Maturation Nature vs. Nurture Maturation is the natural sequence of development Major Contextual Influences Family: Nuclear or Extended Socioeconomic Status: income, education, and occupation Culture: Society or Group The influences and interrelationships of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) depend upon several variables. The more impaired the child is due to heredity or trauma, the less influential can be the environment. In cases of abuse or neglect, normal development can be prevented. If the trauma or abuse occurs during certain critical or sensitive periods, the effects are much worse.

24 Major Contextual Influences
Normative Influences Normative age-graded influences, i..e. biological or social Normative history-graded, i.e. cohort Non-normative Influences Individual events that impact the person Events can be traumatic or happy

25 Major Contextual Influences
Timing of Influences Critical Periods: Time when the presence or absence of an event can cause the greatest impact upon development. Sensitive Periods: Time when the presence or absence of an event can cause some impact upon development. Plasticity: the ability of the body and brain to modify or ameliorate negative impacts.

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