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Assessment Of Growth And Development By Dr. Hanan Said Ali.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment Of Growth And Development By Dr. Hanan Said Ali."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment Of Growth And Development By Dr. Hanan Said Ali

2 Learning Objectives * Define of growth * Define of development * Identify factors influencing growth and development * Enumerate stages of growth and development * Identify age periods and developmental tasks

3 What Is The Meaning Of Growth ? Is a physical changes and increase in size. * Indicators of growth include height, weight, bone size, and dentition. * The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy, and adolescent stages. * The rate is slows during childhood.

4 What Is The Meaning Of Development ? Is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression. Development is the behavioural aspect of growth(e.g., person develops the ability to walk, talk, and to run)

5 N.B. Growth and development are independent, interrelated processes For example, an infant’s muscles, bones, and nervous system must grow to a certain point before the infant can sit up or walk. Growth generally takes place during the 20 years of life; development continues after that.

6 What Are Factors That Influencing Growth And Development ? The factors that influence growth and development are genetic and environmental. 1-Genetic The genetic inheritance of an individual is established at conception. * It remains unchanged throughout life and determines such characteristic as:

7 a- gender. b- Physical Characteristics (e.g., eye colour, potential height) c- Temperament (e.g., response to stimuli in the environment). 2- Environmental Factors Family, climate, culture, school, nutrition

8 What Are The Stages Of Growth And Development ? 1- Neonatal (Birth to 28 days). Behaviour is largely reflexive and develops more purposeful behaviour. 2- Infancy (1month to1 year ) Physical growth is rapid 3- Toddlerhood (1 to 3 years) Motor development permits increased physical autonomy. Psychosocial skills increase

9 4- Preschool(3 to 6 years) * New experiences and the preschooler’s social role are tried during play. * Physical growth is slower. 5- School Age (6 to 12 years) * Peer group increasingly influences behaviour. * Physical,cognitive, and social development increases. * Communication skills are improved.

10 6- Adolescence (12 to 20 years) * Self –concept changes with biologic development. * Values are tested. * Physical growth accelerates. * Stress increases, especially in face of conflicts. 7- Young adulthood ( 20 to 40) * A personal lifestyle develops. * Person establishes a relationship with a significant other and a commitment to something.

11 8- Middle adulthood (40 to 65) * Lifestyle changes due to other changes; for example, children leave home, occupational goals change. 9- Older adulthood A- Young- old (65 to 74) * Adaptation to retirement and changing physical abilities is often necessary. * Chronic illness may develop.

12 B- Middle- old (75 to 84 years) * Adaptation to decline in speed of movement, reaction time. * Increasing dependence on others may be necessary. C- Old-old (85 and over) * Increasing physical problems may develop.

13 Age Periods and Developmental Tasks A- Infancy and early childhood 1- Learning to walk. 2- Learning to take solid foods. 3- Learning to talk. 4- Learning to control the elimination of body wastes.

14 5- Learning sex differences and sexual modesty. 6- Achieving psychologic stability. 7- Forming simple concepts of social and physical reality. 8- Learning to relate emotionally to parents, siblings, and other people 9- Learning to distinguish right from wrong.

15 B- Middle childhood 1- Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games. 2- Learning to get along with age- mates. 3- Building wholesome attitudes towards oneself. 4- Learning an appropriate masculine or or feminine social role.

16 5- Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating. 6- Developing conscience,and morality. 7- Achieving personal independence. 8- Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions.

17 C- Adolescence 1- Achieving new and more mature relations with age- mates of both sexes. 2- Achieving emotional independence from parents and other adults. 3- Achieving assurance of economic independence. 4- Selecting and preparing for an occupation.

18 5- Preparing for marriage and family life. 6- Developing intellectual skills. 7- Desiring and achieving socially responsible behaviour. 8- Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as guide to behaviour

19 D- Early adulthood 1- Selecting mate. 2- Learning to live with a partner. 3- starting a family. 4- Rearing children

20 5- Managing a home. 6- Getting started in the occupation. 7- Taking on civic responsibility. 8- Finding a congenial social group.

21 E- Middle Age 1- Achieving adult civic and social responsibility. 2- Establishing and maintaining an economic standard of living. 3- Developing adult leisure-time activities. 4- Adjusting to aging parents

22 F- Later Maturity 1- Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health. 2- adjusting to retirement and reduced income. 3- Adjusting to death of a spouse. 4- Meeting social and civil obligations. 5- Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangements.

23 Thank You

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