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Child Development Sec. 1-2 “Studying Children”

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1 Child Development Sec. 1-2 “Studying Children”
Mrs. Moore Room 27

2 Why is Childhood Crucial?
Preparing for adulthood Early childhood is most important stage for brain development Babies’ brains develop in response to stimulation, which includes activities that arouse a baby’s sense of sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. These activities can improve a baby’s curiosity, attention span, memory, and nervous system development. Babies who are stimulated develop more quickly and have a more secure self-image.

3 Characteristics of Development
Researchers have found that child development follows five general rules: Development is similar for each individual – children go through the same stages in about the same order Development builds upon early learning – it follows a sequence and builds on skills mastered previously Development proceeds at an individual rate – each child goes through these stages at his/her own pace

4 Characteristics of Development (cont)
The different areas of development are interrelated – While researchers may focus on one area of development, changes occur in many areas(body, mind, emotions) at the same time. Development is a lifelong process – While the rate of development varies, development doesn’t stop.

5 Child Development Theorists
Findings Significance Sigmund Freud Personality develops through a series of stages. Childhood is very important and its effects are longer lasting. Jean Piaget Focused on learning – believed children go through four stages of learning Children must be given learning tasks appropriate to their level of development. Lev Vygotsky Believed that social contact was essential to intellectual development Children should be given the opportunity for frequent social interaction. Erik Erikson Personality develops in stages. Each stage contains a unique psychological crisis. If crisis is met in positive way, the child will develop normally. Parents and caregivers must be aware of and support the children through crises.

6 Child Development Theorists (cont)
B.F. Skinner When a child’s actions have positive results, the action will be repeated. Negative results will make the action stop. Parents can affect child’s behavior through use of positive and negative feedback. Albert Bandura Children learn by imitating others. Although the environment shapes behavior, the behavior also affects the environment. Caregivers must provide good examples for children to follow. Urie Brofenbrenner Outlined layers of environment that affect a child’s development, such as the child’s own biology, family/community, and society. Child’s primary relationship with a caregiver needs to be stable, loving, and lasting.

7 Influences on development
Heredity – biological transfer of certain characteristics from earlier generations such as blood type, eye color, and hair color. Environment – People, places, and things that surround and influence a person, including family, home, school, and community.

8 Lifelong Growth and Development
Development continues throughout life in stages called the human life cycle. Mastering the tasks from one stage helps prepare a person for the next stage. Development Beyond Childhood 1. Adolescence (between childhood and adulthood) 2. Young Adulthood (20’s) 3. The Thirties 4. Middle Age(40-55) 5. Late Adulthood(55-75) 6. Very Late Adulthood (75+)

9 The Role of Self-Esteem in Development
Self-esteem, or self-worth, refers to the value people place on themselves. It plays a role in people’s ability to face and overcome the challenges of each developmental stage, including those of young adulthood. People with low self-esteem often feel that they are failing or constantly disappointing others. Researchers have found a link between poor self-esteem and poor school performance, truancy, and criminal behavior. A sense of self-worth is critical to a child’s development.

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