Presentation on theme: "Studying Children Imagine spending your entire career doing research on child development. Generate a list of topics that should be covered. By the time."— Presentation transcript:
Studying Children Imagine spending your entire career doing research on child development. Generate a list of topics that should be covered. By the time you retire, do you think you could solve all of it’s mysteries?
Objectives: n Explain why childhood is an important time of development n Compare and contrast the leading theories about how children develop n Identify five characteristics of child development n Defend the idea that heredity and environment are equally important in child development n List stages of development after adulthood n Describe how self-esteem and development are interrelated
Why is Childhood Crucial? n Time of preparation for adulthood n Early childhood is most important life stage for brain development
Brain Development n At birth, the brain is the least developed organ n Baby’s brain is about ¼ the size of an adults n Babies’ brains develop in response to stimulation –Arousal of baby’s five senses –Develop more quickly and have a more secure self-image
Developing Brain n Newborns’ brains contain about 100 billion nerve cells – neurons n Neurons have about 50 trillion connections n Connections increase rapidly n By 3, a child has twice as many connections as an adult n As a child matures, unused pathways are eliminated n Babies who are stimulated more retain more connections
Theories About Development n Provided valuable information about how children learn and develop skills n Not everyone agrees on how theories and research finding should be applied n Have given insight about how best to nurture and educate children n Laid the foundation for future researchers to build upon
5 Characteristics of Development 1. Development is similar for each individual n Ex. Babies will lift their heads before lifting their bodies 2. Development builds upon early learning Development follows a sequence Skills learned at one stage build on those mastered earlier
5 Characteristics of Development 3. Development proceeds at an individual rate Each child moves at their own pace 4. Different areas of development are interrelated Changes occur in many areas at the same time – body, mind, emotions 5. Development is a lifelong process Rate of development varies, but never stops
Lifelong Growth and Development n Human life cycle – development from birth to death n Each stage of cycle present different challenges or skills to be acquired – Developmental tasks n Mastering the task at one stage prepare people for the next
Development Beyond Childhood n Adolescences – between childhood and adulthood –Creating an identity, becoming independent, pursuing education and career options n Young Adult – twenties –Finish education, begin working, marriage n Thirties –Establishing roots, reevaluating life choices, finding stability
Development Beyond Childhood n Middle Age – 40 to 55 –Children become more independent –Satisfaction with life? If not, make changes n Late Adult – 55 to 75 –Retirement, grandchildren, health issues may arise n Very Late Adult – 75+ –Health problems become more common –Contribute knowledge and expertise to society
Role of Self - Esteem n Self-esteem – value people place on themselves (self-worth) n Affects people’s ability to face challenges at each developmental stage n Lower self esteem = poor school performance, truancy, criminal behavior n Higher self esteem = enthusiasm for learning, form friendships, make healthy choices n Help’s children deal with life’s frustrations, disappointments & successes
Tips to Help Children Develop Self-Esteem n Give Praise n Don’t be Overly Critical n Set Realistic Goals n Encourage New Activities n Model Self-Esteem n Be Honest About Mistakes
Think About It: 1. Identify characteristics of someone with high self-esteem. Then with low self-esteem. 2. Think of a time when someone’s criticism lowered your self-esteem. How might that person have encouraged you instead?
Summary: n Childhood is a time of preparation for adulthood. n Much of the brain’s development occurs early in life, and stimulation furthers brain development. n Although no theorists agree on the development of children each has provided us with insight on how to nurture and educate them. n Development doesn’t stop. It continues throughout our entire life cycle. n Self-esteem plays a major role in how a child develops.