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Psyc 351 Lifespan Development Instructor: Michael Liebhaber, PhD.

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Presentation on theme: "Psyc 351 Lifespan Development Instructor: Michael Liebhaber, PhD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psyc 351 Lifespan Development Instructor: Michael Liebhaber, PhD

2 Developmental Psychology Looks at ways in which people change from conception through maturity, and how and why. The study of human development has been interdisciplinary. It draws from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology, biology, genetics, family science, education, history, and medicine.

3 © 2012 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Periods of the Life Span (mostly arbitrary) Prenatal PeriodConception–Birth Infancy and ToddlerhoodBirth–3 years Early Childhood3–6 years Middle Childhood6–11 years Adolescence11–20 years Young Adulthood20–40 years Middle Adulthood40–65 years Late Adulthood65 years and Over

4 Did You Know….. In some societies there is no concept of adolescence or middle age? Minority children in the United States will become the majority by 2023?

5 Domains of Development physical - Growth of the body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills, and health cognitive - Learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity psychosocial - Emotions, personality, and social relationships

6 Critical & Sensitive Periods – Critical Period Specific time when an event (or its absence) has specific impact on development – Sensitive Period Developmental timing when child is particularly responsive to certain experiences © 2012 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

7 Developmental Research Findings have applications to child rearing, education, health, and social policy Example: In middle school children - what is a good way to – Improve math grades? – Reduce absences and tardiness? – Reduce emotional and behavioral problems?

8 Research in a Boston school district Found that students who went to school hungry or lacked essential nutrients in their diet had poorer grades and more emotional and behavioral problems than their classmates. After the schools started a free-breakfast program, participating students improved their math grades, were absent and tardy less often, and had fewer emotional and behavioral problems (Kleinman et al., 2002; Murphy et al., 1998).

9 © 2012 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Influences on Development Individuals vary in rate and timing of development due to: oHeredity: Inherited traits from biological parents oEnvironment: Physical and social influences oMaturation: Sequences of physical and behavioral patterns

10 Contexts of Development Family SES Culture Ethnicity Historical

11 Contexts of Development: Family What is a family? Cultures have different types of family systems Families have structure and functions – Structure - the number of members of the family and familial positions (e.g., mother, father, son, daughter, grandfather, grandmother, uncles and aunts, cousins and other kin) – Functions - procreation and socialization of children, sexual regulation, economic cooperation, and provision of care, affection and companionship. Two Generation Families – Nuclear family consists of two generations: the wife/mother, husband/father, and their children. – One-parent family, divorced or unmarried parent, is also a two-generation family. Three Generation Families – Many types of extended families that consist of at least three generations – Georgas, J. (2003). Family: Variations and changes across cultures.

12 Contexts of Development: SES Socioeconomic Status (SES) - A family’s SES is based on family income and the educational and occupational levels of the adults in the household. SES affects developmental processes and outcomes indirectly – the kinds of homes and neighborhoods people live in – the quality of nutrition, medical care, and schooling available to them – parents’ emotional state and parenting practices

13 Contexts of Development: SES In the United States, where poverty thresholds depend on family size and composition, 21 percent of all children under age 18 live in poverty. – Virtually all progress made with respect to child poverty since 1974 was wiped out by the current recession (Child and Youth Well-Being Index, 2010). Affluence doesn’t necessarily protect children from risk.

14 Contexts of Development: Culture Culture – A way of life – Beliefs – Values – Rituals – All of the behavior and attitudes that are learned, shared, and transmitted among members of a social group. © 2012 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

15 Contexts of Development: Race & Ethnicity Ethnic Group – A shared identity – United by ancestry, religion, or origin – Contributes to shared attitudes and beliefs Race – A socially constructed term – Scholars have no real consensus on definition – Categories “fluid” – shaped by society and politics Ethnic Gloss – Overgeneralization that obscures cultural differences within a group Examples: “Black” or “Hispanic”

16 Contexts of Development: Historical Context Unique time in which people live and grow up Familial Generation – Time from birth of a mother to the birth of her first child – High 20s in industrialized nations – Low 20s in less industrialized nations Cultural Generation – Defined by historical or social events (e.g., baby boom, the ‘60s) – Defined “after the fact” by writers, etc. Cohort: Group born around the same time

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