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Structures and Components.  Footing is located at the base of the foundation wall ◦ It is always at the bottom ◦ It is stuffed into the ground ◦ The.

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Presentation on theme: "Structures and Components.  Footing is located at the base of the foundation wall ◦ It is always at the bottom ◦ It is stuffed into the ground ◦ The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Structures and Components

2  Footing is located at the base of the foundation wall ◦ It is always at the bottom ◦ It is stuffed into the ground ◦ The foundation is built on top of the footing ◦ Footing is supposed to be 6 feet below frost line  If it is less than 6 feet, you will encounter problems

3  Foundation is the base upon which the structure is constructed ◦ It holds weight of the structure below frost line and prevents sinking  Foundations without sufficient sideway (lateral) support will deflect inwards

4  A post (pillar) is a structural component that holds up the load of a beam down to the footings vertically. ◦ Pillars are support columns, often located under stairs and decks etc.

5 1. Moisture 2. Out of Plumb ◦ Posts made out of plumb lose strength because they are incorrectly installed – they lean sideways and are not straight 3. Footing 4. Rust ◦ Steel posts rust if the basement floods 5. Undersized ◦ Post is not the right size and so it cannot support load 6. Fire ◦ Fire damages steel posts faster than wood posts because even though they don’t burn, they become weak 7. Secure to Beam ◦ If post is not secured property to beam, structure will move

6  Sills are pieces of wood that are between the foundation wall and brick wall ◦ They have anchor bolts that keep them in place  Studs are built on top of sills ◦ They make up the exterior walls  Problems with sills ◦ Termites ◦ Rot ◦ Point loads  Sill crushes if there is too much pressure on 1 point ◦ Anchoring  If sill not properly bolted to the foundation, it may shift resulting in the entire structure moving ◦ End bearing  If joists are too short, the other sills may take additional load and become damaged

7  Where is the anchor bolt used? ◦ The anchor bolt is used to attach the sill to the foundation walls

8  Balloon framing is typically used in single-story bungalows  One stud (vertical wall framing) goes all the way from the foundation wall to the rooftop  The inside framing is built after the wall

9  Platform framing is used in multi-story constructions (over 95%)  1 stud goes from foundation to 1 st floor, and another from 2 nd floor to roof  Walls built after inside framing

10  Balloon = bungalow; platform = multi-story  Balloon = wall then joists; platform = joists then walls

11  Beams are long, structural components that carry the load of the wall and floor horizontally to the foundation  It is a horizontal frame in a house ◦ Studs are vertical frames  Beams can be found either in the roof or basement

12  Joists are a type of horizontal wood members that support ceilings, roofs or floors ◦ They are typically 2 inches thick  Joists are placed on edges and they get their strength primarily from their depth  In residential structures, you can choose between hardwood, carpet, laminate etc. ◦ Under this material, you have the subfloor which carries weight of moving objects such as people ◦ Under subfloor, you have floor joists which are horizontal pieces of wood to bridge and block joists from twisting

13  If joists are not bridged and blocked, they will move around freely ◦ Both bridging and blocking must be done together

14  Subfloors are used to carry live loads (people)  It is typically made from plywood and is located under the top layer/final floor  It is commonly known as pre-floor

15  Rafters are a kind of beam used to support the roof of a building  They carry the load of the roof to the outer brick walls  Rafters need support or they might break ◦ This support is provided by collar ties & knee walls ◦ Collar ties carry load from one rafter to another ◦ Knee walls support the bottom of the rafters and are normally found in the attic

16  Collar ties typically carry the load of one rafter to another rafter

17  Roof trusses serve the same purpose as knee walls, collar ties and ceiling joists  They hold up roof shingles and sheathing and transfer the load of the roof to the outside walls  The bottom truss also performs function of supporting ceiling finish on which insulation sits  The main problem with trusses are the cut and truss uplifts

18  A knee wall prevents the collar ties and rafters from falling apart by providing necessary support

19  Where other than the attic can one find knee walls? ◦ They are also commonly found in garages ◦ But not all houses have a built-in garage ◦ Attached garages are also common

20  Roof sheathing is now done with wafer board panels, but till 1970s, wood planks and plywood were commonly used  Sheathing serves two important functions: 1.Covering rafters 2.Transmitting load of material (including sheathing shingles, snow, ice and water)

21  Roofs protect houses from climatic conditions  A roof can be damaged by a number of factors including termites, condensation, and mainly abrasion caused by tree branches scraping roof shingles and Ice Damming (build-up)  Pitch is the angle (slope) of the roof

22  Flashings are used to join 2 dissimilar objects ◦ They are used when there is a joint in materials or when a material changes direction ◦ Roof and chimney are joined together with flashings to prevent leakage  They are made from galvanized steel  They are most likely to be found between 2 dissimilar objects/materials  They are least likely to be found between 2 shingles, since they are the same material

23  The building code sets requirements for all kinds of construction, including basements ◦ There needs to be sufficient structural integrity and capacity  Basement leaks are typically intermittent, i.e. they occur after rainfall or melting of snow

24 1. Poor damp proofing around the house  Allows water vapor to enter through concrete 2. Cracks in walls and windows 3. Down spouts and eaves troughs are damaged/cracked  This prevents water from flowing away from the basement, aided by an outside slope 4. The yard outside is sloped towards the walls of the basement

25 1. Fixing exterior slope away from the house 2. Ensuring downspouts and eaves troughs are installed properly and not broken 3. Window well covers 4. Interior and exterior basement drainage systems and sump pumps 5. Improving surface drainage 6. Damp-proofing exterior walls by covering the footing joint or foundation 7. Apply tar from grade level to footing to increase protection against moisture

26 1. Rust on posts, baseboard nails, furnace equipment or any other metallic objects either near or fixed into the walls 2. Mildew or mould 3. Discoloration or stains on drywall, floor panels or other interior finishes 4. Moisture beneath the carpets or peeling floor tiles  Real estate agents usually depend on both home inspections and property disclosure forms to determine the existence of water damage

27  If water leaks through cracks in the wall, it typically mixes with salt that is used for insulation purposes  The water eventually evaporates, leaving behind white salt crystals

28  Drainage is a system of drains that are used to remove liquids ◦ They may be natural or artificial ◦ It is typically a system of pipes, ditches, conduits or other devices that allow water to run  External drainage ◦ The Building Code identifies a number of granular materials that must be used to drain water from below the foundation, and also where drainage disposal pipes must be situated

29  Internal drainage ◦ Includes footings placed below basement floor level that lead to a waste sewage system or a sump pump ◦ Internal drainage is normally less desirable than external drainage because your main goal should be to prevent water from entering your property in the first place ◦ Internal drainage is a means of dealing with water once it has already entered the property

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