Presentation on theme: "The circulatory system transports blood and other materials."— Presentation transcript:
1 KEY CONCEPT The respiratory and circulatory systems bring oxygen and nutrients to the cells.
2 The circulatory system transports blood and other materials. The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to maintain homeostasis.The circulatory system transports blood and other materials.brings supplies to cellscarries away wastesseparates oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich bloodOxygen-poor bloodOxygen-rich blood
3 The respiratory system is where gas exchange occurs. picks up oxygen from inhaled airexpels carbon dioxide and waternosesinusmouthepiglottistrachealungs
4 The respiratory system moves gases into and out of the blood. The lungs contain the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.Millions of alveoli give the lungs a huge surface area.The alveoli absorb oxygen from the air you inhale.alveolibronchiole
5 Breathing involves the diaphragm and muscles of the rib cage. Air flows from areas of high pressure to low pressure.Air inhaled.Muscles contract andrib cage expands.Diaphragm flattensand moves downward.Air exhaled.Muscles andrib cage relax.Diaphragm relaxesand rises.
6 The circulatory system moves blood to all parts of the body. The system includes the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.heart pumps blood throughout bodyarteries move blood away from heartveins move blood back to heartcapillaries get blood to and from cellsveinsarteries
7 There are three major functions of the circulatory system. transporting blood, gases, nutrientscollecting waste materialsmaintaining body temperature
8 KEY CONCEPT 30.2 The respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide.
9 Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried by the blood to and from the alveoli.oxygen diffuses from alveoli into capillaryoxygen binds to hemoglobin in red blood cellscarbon dioxide difuses from capillary into alveoliALVEOLIGAS EXCHANGESalveoluscapillaryco2o2Co2 diffusesinto alveolus.O2 diffusesinto blood.capillaries
10 Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli of the lungs. Breathing is regulated by the brain stem.midbrainponsmedulla oblongataspinal chord
11 Respiratory diseases interfere with gas exchange. Lung diseases reduce airflow and oxygen absorption.Emphysema destroys alveoli.Asthma constricts airways.Cystic fibrosis produces sticky mucus.
13 KEY CONCEPT 30.3 The heart is a muscular pump that moves the blood through two pathways.
14 The tissues and structures of the heart make it an efficient pump. Cardiac muscle tissue works continuously without tiring.NORMAL HUMAN HEART
15 The heart has four chambers: two atria, two ventricles. Valves in each chamber prevent backflow of blood.aortic valveleft atriummitral valveleft ventricleseptumpulmonary valveright atriumtricuspidright ventricleMuscles squeeze the chambers in a powerful pumping action.
16 The heartbeat consists of two contractions. SA node, or pacemaker, stimulates atria to contractAV node stimulates ventricles to contractSA nodeVA node
17 Blood flows through the heart in a specific pathway. 3142
18 Blood flows through the heart in a specific pathway. oxygen-poor blood enters right atrium, then right ventricleright ventricle pumps blood to lungsoxygen-rich blood from lungs enters left atrium, then left ventricleleft ventricle pumps blood to body
19 The heart pumps blood through two main pathways. Pulmonary circulation occurs between the heart and the lungs.oxygen-poor blood enters lungsexcess carbon dioxide and water expelledblood picks up oxygenoxygen-rich blood returns to heart
20 Systemic circulation occurs between the heart and the rest of the body. oxygen-rich blood goes to organs, extremitiesoxygen-poor blood returns to heartThe two pathways help maintain a stable body temperature.
21 KEY CONCEPT 30.4 The circulatory system transports materials throughout the body.
22 Arteries, veins, and capillaries transport blood to all parts of the body. Arteries carry blood away from the heart.blood under great pressurethicker, more muscular wallsARTERYVEINCAPILLARIESarteriolevenuleendotheliumconnective tissuesmooth musclevalve
23 Veins carry blood back to the heart. blood under less pressurethinner walls, larger diametervalves prevent backflowARTERYVEINCAPILLARIESarteriolevenuleendotheliumconnective tissuesmooth musclevalve
24 Capillaries move blood between veins, arteries, and cells. ARTERYVEINCAPILLARIESarterioleendotheliumconnective tissuesmooth musclevenulevalve
25 Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood pushing against artery walls. systolic pressure: left ventricle contractsdiastolic pressure: left ventricle relaxesHigh blood pressure can precede a heart attack or stroke.
26 Lifestyle plays a key role in circulatory diseases. Some choices lead to an increased risk of circulatory diseases.smokinglong-term stressexcessive weightlack of exercisediet low in fruits and vegetables, high in saturated fats
27 Circulatory diseases affect mainly the heart and the arteries. artery walls become thick and inflexibleplaque blocks blood flow in arteries
28 KEY CONCEPT 30.5 Blood is a complex tissue that transports materials.
29 Blood is composed mainly of cells, cell fragments, and plasma. Whole blood is made up of different materials.plasmared blood cellswhite blood cellsplateletsred blood cells,white blood cells,and plateletsplasma
30 Plasma is a key factor in maintaining homeostasis. molecules diffuse into and out of plasmacontains proteins that stabilize blood volumecontains clotting factorscontains immune proteins
31 Platelets and different types of blood cells have different functions. The bone marrow manufactures most of the blood components.red blood cellplateletwhite blood cell
32 Red blood cells make up 40-45 % of all blood cells. transport oxygen to cells and carry away carbon dioxidehave no nuclei and contain hemoglobin
33 White blood cells fight pathogens and destroy foreign matter. red blood cellplateletwhite blood cell
34 Protein markers define blood types and Rh factors. ABO blood group the most commonRh factor can be negative or positiveblood types must be compatible for transfusions
35 Platelets help form clots that control bleeding. fibrinred blood cellwhite blood cell
36 KEY CONCEPT 30.6 The lymphatic system provides another type of circulation in the body.
37 The lymphatic system collects fluid that leaks out of the capillaries. Lymph is collected from tissues and returned to the circulatory system.heartlymph nodeslymph vesselsThe lymphatic system collects fluid that leaks out of the capillaries.Lymph vessels have valves to prevent backflow.Lymph nodes filter the lymph and destroy foreign matter.Lymph vessels return cleaned fluid to the circulatory system.If lymph vessels or nodes are damaged, lymph collects in an area.
38 The lymphatic system is a major part of the immune system. tonsilsthymusspleenStructures in the lymphatic system help fight disease.tonsils filter bacteria and virusesthymus develops white blood cellsspleen filters lymph, contains immune cellsLymphocytes help destroy pathogens, parasites, and foreign matter.