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Chapter 15 – page 408 Cardiovascular system Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary vein Left Atrium Mitral Valve Left Ventricle Septum Right.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 – page 408 Cardiovascular system Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary vein Left Atrium Mitral Valve Left Ventricle Septum Right."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 15 – page 408 Cardiovascular system

3 Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary Valve Pulmonary vein Left Atrium Mitral Valve Left Ventricle Septum Right Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Tricuspid Valve Right Atrium Superior Vena Cava Aortic valve


5 Composed of the heart and all the blood vessels of the body.

6 HEART  Muscular organ – size of fist  Made of muscle called myocardium  Average heart rate = 70-80 beats/minute

7 HEART  Contains four chambers  Small upper chambers are called the left and right atrium  Larger lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles  A wall of tissue called the septum separates the right side from the left side  Valves between the atria and the ventricles allow blood to flow. These valves are one-way valves. A

8 HEART  At the top of the right atrium is the area that acts as a pacemaker for the heart. This area is called the SA Node

9 BLOOD  Delivers oxygen, hormones, and nutrients to the cells and carries away waste that the cells produce.


11 PLASMA  The fluid in which other parts of the blood are suspended.  Plasma is mostly water

12 RED BLOOD CELLS  Transport oxygen to the cells and tissue  Red blood cells are formed in bone marrow and contain hemoglobin  Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein in blood. It contains iron that binds with oxygen in the lungs.


14 WHITE BLOOD CELLS (see also lymphocytes under part IV)  Main role is to protect the body against infection.  Produced in the bone marrow  Production of cells increases when infection is present.

15 PLATELETS  Cells that prevent the body’s loss of blood  Release sticky substance that causes clumping at site of an injury  Stimulate blood to produce small thread-like fibers called fibrin  These fibers trap platelets and red/white blood cells to form a clot

16 HEMOPHILIA  The condition that occurs as a result of a deficient or abnormal clotting factor


18 BLOOD TYPES  Four types of blood  A  B  AB  O  Universal Donor = O  Universal Recipient = AB

19 Rh Factor  A protein substance found in the red blood cells of most people (+)  If not present the blood is considered negative (-)  Normally has no impact on health unless blood is mixed  The blood will agglutinate (clump together)

20 BLOOD VESSELS  Network of more than 60,000 miles of blood vessels  Enough length to circle the earth approx. 2.5 times!

21 ARTERIES  Carry blood away from the heart  Thick, elastic walls  Coronary arteries – carry blood to the heart itself

22 ARTERIOLES  Smaller arteries as they move away from the heart  Connect with the capillaries

23 CAPILLARIES  Smallest blood vessels  Connect the arterioles to the venules  Exchange oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and waste  Play a role in temperature regulation by dilating during heat, and constricting during cold.

24 VENULES  Smaller veins as they move toward the heart  Connect the capillaries to the veins

25 VEINS  Carry blood to the heart  Thinner, less elastic walls  Contain valves to prevent backflow

26 Lymph Circulation  The lymphatic system is a network of vessels and tissues that move and filter lymph.  Lymph – the clear fluid that fills the spaces around body cells  Contains water, proteins, fat and lymphocytes  Lymphocytes are specialized white blood cells that protect the body against pathogens (microorganisms that cause disease)

27 Lymphocytes  Two Types  Lymph is filtered by lymph nodes – small bean shaped organs found in lymph vessels B CellsT Cells (Killer and Helper) Produce antibodies to fight pathogens Killer T cells release toxins that prevent infection from spreading Create immune response by preventing a second attack of the same disease Helper T cells activate the B cells and the killer T cells

28 BLOOD PRESSURE  Measure of the amount of force that the blood places on the walls of the blood vessels, particularly large arteries, as it is pumped through the body.

29 SPHYGMOMANOMETER  Blood pressure cuff – measures blood pressure along with a stethoscope.

30 BLOOD PRESSURE  Average blood pressure for an adult is 120/80  Systolic pressure – maximum pressure on the artery walls (during a contraction)  Top number in the fraction  Diastolic pressure – pressure at its lowest point (ventricles relax)  Bottom number in the fraction

31 Cardiovascular System Problems  Congenital Heart Defects – heart conditions that are present at birth. (Septal defect is a hole in the septum)  Heart Murmurs – hole in heart OR a leaking/malfunctioning valve.  Varicose veins – valves in vein do not close tightly, allowing back flow of blood

32 Congenital Heart Defect - Septal Defect Varicose Vein

33 Cardiovascular System Problems  Anemia – ability of blood to carry oxygen is reduced. Often caused by iron deficiency.  Hemophilia – inherited disorder- blood does not clot properly.  Leukemia – form of cancer in which too many white blood cells are produced.


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