Presentation on theme: "ROME From Republic to Empire. The Roman Republic According to legend, Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus. Rome developed into a republic in which people."— Presentation transcript:
The Roman Republic According to legend, Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus. Rome developed into a republic in which people elected leaders to govern. Rome’s republic was governed by three branches called a tripartite that had checks and balances preventing one branch from becoming too powerful. Rome’s written law code was the Law of the Twelve Tables.
The Call for Change By the first century BC Rome was growing and changing rapidly. Politicians and generals went to war to increase their power while political order broke down in Rome. Unemployed Romans rioted in the streets, because they couldn’t get enough food. More people from all around the republic kept coming to the city adding to the confusion.
Julius Caesar’s Rise to Power Julius Caesar was probably the most powerful general in Roman history. Caesar’s military successes made him a powerful man in Roman politics. He was a good leader and an excellent speaker. He also had powerful friends. He was allied with two of the most powerful men in Rome, Pompey and Crassus. The three agreed to fight against the Senate.
The Death of Julius Caesar Caesar forced the Senate to name him dictator for life. Some people resented the way Caesar came to power fearing he was trying to make himself king. Some Senators who were angry with Caesar attacked and killed him on March 15, 44 BC - the Ides of March.
Augustus the Emperor A civil war began after Julius Caesar’s death. Octavian, Julius Caesar’s adopted son, was named Augustus or “revered one.” He was Rome’s first emperor. Historians mark this as the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire Once Rome became an empire, its rulers continued to expand its power. Soldiers and settlers carried Roman culture to distant provinces such as Britannia (Britain). At its height, Rome ruled one of the largest empires in all of history. However, some countries that shared borders with Rome were threatening Rome, so Rome conquered them. Some territories were conquered for economic reasons. They had vast amounts of gold, good farmland, and other resources.
Roman Expansion By the early 100s AD, the Romans had conquered Gaul and most of central Europe. Later at the time of Emperor Hadrian, the Romans had conquered most of the island of Britain. In the east, the empire stretched all the way into Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. In fact, Rome controlled everything that bordered the Mediterranean Sea.
The Pax Romana (Roman Peace) The first 200 years of the Roman Empire were a time of general peace and prosperity. Characteristics of the Pax Romana were a stable government and an organized military. There were no major wars or rebellions in the empire. The empire’s trade increased, the population grew, and there was an improvement in the quality of life throughout the empire.
Summary In 27 BC Rome became an empire. Emperors ruled with complete power, and Roman armies conquered new territories.