Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Rome Becomes an Empire…

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Rome Becomes an Empire…"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rome Becomes an Empire…

2 Main Ideas Angry poor people, power-hungry generals, and ambitious politicians threatened the Roman Republic. Julius Caesar gained absolute control of the republic but did not rule long. After Caesar was assassinated, Augustus founded an empire that enjoyed peace and prosperity for about 200 years.

3 Essential Question: What led to conflict in Rome?
Conflicts at Home Essential Question: What led to conflict in Rome?

4 Reform Fails As Rome expanded, many wealthy Romans neglected civic duties Only wanted to gain more wealth and power Differences increased between rich and poor Threat of uprisings grew Reformers wanted to break up estates, give land to the poor Senate’s wealthy landowners opposed reform, had reformers killed

5 Civil War Generals who had conquered other lands wanted power at home
Hired poor farmers as soldiers who became loyal to generals Generals began civil war – war between groups within same country A general named Marius fought for the plebeians A general named Sulla fought for the patricians Patricians won in 82 B.C.E.; Sulla became dictator

6 Who fought in the civil war?
Review Question: Who fought in the civil war?

7 Essential Question: Who was Julius Caesar?

8 An Ambitious General After Sulla’s death, other generals rose to power
One was Julius Caesar – born around 100 B.C.E. into an old, noble family He formed the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus in which they would rule equally

9 Military Leader Caesar fought in Asia Minor and Spain
He proved himself a great general in a military campaign against Gaul Caesar’s conquest of Gaul brought him fame and fortune

10 Dictator for Life Caesar was a great politician, reformer
Was popular with the plebeians Many powerful Romans, including patrician senators, opposed Caesar Cicero, consul and speaker, supported republic, distrusted Caesar After returning from Gaul, Senate ordered Caesar to disband army Caesar instead led army to Italy, and fought Pompey for control (Cassus had previously died in battle) Won in 46 B.C.E. Senate appointed him ruler (First Consul) Was named dictator for life in 44 B.C.E.

11 Caesar’s Reforms Caesar was an absolute ruler, but started some reforms Expanded Senate, enforced laws, and created jobs Some feared he would become king, and have descendents rule after him

12 Assassination! And His Legacy
So Caesar was assassinated on March 15, 44 B.C.E. by a group of senators They repeatedly stabbed him on the Senate floor Groups’ leaders were eventually killed or committed suicide Reformer or tyrant? Caesar’s rule and death would end republic

13 Review Question: Why was Caesar killed?

14 Essential Question: What happened to Rome after Caesar’s death?
Emperors Rule Rome Essential Question: What happened to Rome after Caesar’s death?

15 Augustus After Caesar’s death, civil war destroyed what was left of republic A Second Triumvirate was formed which included Octavian (Caesar’s nephew and adopted son) and Marc Antony (ill-fated lover of Cleopatra) Augustus wanted more power and a civil war broke out between in which he led Roman legions against Marc Antony and his Egyptian allies Augustus won and became Rome’s first emperor Octavian took name Augustus Caesar (Augustus means “exalted one”) This effectively ended the Roman Republic

16 Spread of slavery in the agricultural system
Migration of small farmers into cities and unemployment Causes for the decline of the Roman Republic Civil war over the power of Julius Caesar Representative government unsuited for governing large empire

17 Augustus Rebuilds Rome
Augustus became Rome’s first emperor Used title “first citizen” Controlled provinces, strengthened defenses, began civil service Beautified Rome by building temples, theaters, monuments

18 The Roman Peace Augustus’ reign began Pax Romana – long period of peace and stability Empire grew to greatest size, 2 million miles Roman army of 300,000 men became greatest fighting force in world Army guarded frontiers, built roads Navy patrolled Mediterranean Sea

19 A Strong Economy Pax Romana continued after Augustus’ death in A.D. 14
The Peace lasted for 200 years Empire thrived under government begun by Augustus What a crazy idea: Peace equals prosperity! First few emperors were totally insane Caligulia was mentally disturbed and cruel Nero was also quite disturbed and murdered many

20 Agriculture and Trade Romans produced pottery, metal goods, glass, wine, olive oil Land and sea trade routes aided economic growth Romans traded with Spain, Africa, western Asia, Gaul Traders brought back grain, ivory, silk, spices, gold, silver

21 Currency Roman economy united by common currency, making trade easier
Expanding economy made the rich richer Deepened division with poor

22 What were the contributions of the Roman emperor?
Review Question: What were the contributions of the Roman emperor?

23 Summary The results of Roman expansion produced social conflict and civil war. Julius Caesar gained power and became a dictator but was then assassinated . The reign of Augustus Caesar began a long period of imperial rule and peace in the Roman Empire. The Roman Republic became the Roman Empire.

24 Why It Matters Now… Rome faced many of the same problems that we face today of how to maintain peace, law, and order.

Download ppt "Rome Becomes an Empire…"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google