2 Main IdeasAngry poor people, power-hungry generals, and ambitious politicians threatened the Roman Republic.Julius Caesar gained absolute control of the republic but did not rule long.After Caesar was assassinated, Augustus founded an empire that enjoyed peace and prosperity for about 200 years.
3 Essential Question: What led to conflict in Rome? Conflicts at HomeEssential Question:What led to conflict in Rome?
4 Reform FailsAs Rome expanded, many wealthy Romans neglected civic dutiesOnly wanted to gain more wealth and powerDifferences increased between rich and poorThreat of uprisings grewReformers wanted to break up estates, give land to the poorSenate’s wealthy landowners opposed reform, had reformers killed
5 Civil War Generals who had conquered other lands wanted power at home Hired poor farmers as soldiers who became loyal to generalsGenerals began civil war – war between groups within same countryA general named Marius fought for the plebeiansA general named Sulla fought for the patriciansPatricians won in 82 B.C.E.; Sulla became dictator
6 Who fought in the civil war? Review Question:Who fought in the civil war?
8 An Ambitious General After Sulla’s death, other generals rose to power One was Julius Caesar – born around 100 B.C.E. into an old, noble familyHe formed the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus in which they would rule equally
9 Military Leader Caesar fought in Asia Minor and Spain He proved himself a great general in a military campaign against GaulCaesar’s conquest of Gaul brought him fame and fortune
10 Dictator for Life Caesar was a great politician, reformer Was popular with the plebeiansMany powerful Romans, including patrician senators, opposed CaesarCicero, consul and speaker, supported republic, distrusted CaesarAfter returning from Gaul, Senate ordered Caesar to disband armyCaesar instead led army to Italy, and fought Pompey for control (Cassus had previously died in battle)Won in 46 B.C.E.Senate appointed him ruler (First Consul)Was named dictator for life in 44 B.C.E.
11 Caesar’s ReformsCaesar was an absolute ruler, but started some reformsExpanded Senate, enforced laws, and created jobsSome feared he would become king, and have descendents rule after him
12 Assassination! And His Legacy So Caesar was assassinated on March 15, 44 B.C.E. by a group of senatorsThey repeatedly stabbed him on the Senate floorGroups’ leaders were eventually killed or committed suicideReformer or tyrant?Caesar’s rule and death would end republic
14 Essential Question: What happened to Rome after Caesar’s death? Emperors Rule RomeEssential Question:What happened to Rome after Caesar’s death?
15 AugustusAfter Caesar’s death, civil war destroyed what was left of republicA Second Triumvirate was formed which included Octavian (Caesar’s nephew and adopted son) and Marc Antony (ill-fated lover of Cleopatra)Augustus wanted more power and a civil war broke out between in which he led Roman legions against Marc Antony and his Egyptian alliesAugustus won and became Rome’s first emperorOctavian took name Augustus Caesar (Augustus means “exalted one”)This effectively ended the Roman Republic
16 Spread of slavery in the agricultural system Migration of small farmers into cities and unemploymentCauses for the decline of the Roman RepublicCivil war over the power of Julius CaesarRepresentative government unsuited for governing large empire
17 Augustus Rebuilds Rome Augustus became Rome’s first emperorUsed title “first citizen”Controlled provinces, strengthened defenses, began civil serviceBeautified Rome by building temples, theaters, monuments
18 The Roman PeaceAugustus’ reign began Pax Romana – long period of peace and stabilityEmpire grew to greatest size, 2 million milesRoman army of 300,000 men became greatest fighting force in worldArmy guarded frontiers, built roadsNavy patrolled Mediterranean Sea
19 A Strong Economy Pax Romana continued after Augustus’ death in A.D. 14 The Peace lasted for 200 yearsEmpire thrived under government begun by AugustusWhat a crazy idea: Peace equals prosperity!First few emperors were totally insaneCaligulia was mentally disturbed and cruelNero was also quite disturbed and murdered many
20 Agriculture and TradeRomans produced pottery, metal goods, glass, wine, olive oilLand and sea trade routes aided economic growthRomans traded with Spain, Africa, western Asia, GaulTraders brought back grain, ivory, silk, spices, gold, silver
21 Currency Roman economy united by common currency, making trade easier Expanding economy made the rich richerDeepened division with poor
22 What were the contributions of the Roman emperor? Review Question:What were the contributions of the Roman emperor?
23 SummaryThe results of Roman expansion produced social conflict and civil war.Julius Caesar gained power and became a dictator but was then assassinated .The reign of Augustus Caesar began a long period of imperial rule and peace in the Roman Empire.The Roman Republic became the Roman Empire.
24 Why It Matters Now…Rome faced many of the same problems that we face today of how to maintain peace, law, and order.