2 Introduction How Rome grows from a republic to a mighty empire. The expansion took place over 500 years.509 B.C.E. to 14 C.E.
3 From Republic to Empire: First Period of Expansion First period of Expansion happened in 509 B.C.E.Romans kicked the Etruscans out!
4 From Republic to Empire: Second Period of Expansion Rome fought the city of Carthage in North Africa.The second period of expansion was from 264 to 146 B.C.E.Rome gained control of N. Africa, Spain, and Sicily.
5 From Republic to Empire: Third Period of Expansion From 145 to 44 B.C.E.Rome came to rule the entire Mediterranean world.Took control over Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt.Also Gaul (France).
6 From Republic to Empire: Fourth Period of Expansion Rome was an empire.Augustus added new territory.At his height, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain to the Black Sea.
7 Rome’s Conquest of the Italian Peninsula, 509 to 264 B.C.E. Rome gradually took over the Italian Peninsula in 200 years of fighting.Rome continued to fight for new territory and to protect the territory they captured.
8 As Rome’s Territory Grew Each city had to keep a large permanent army.More Romans were forced to serve in the army.Plebeians served in the army.Conquered people had limited privileges.Roman allies had to pay Roman taxes.
9 Overseas Expansion During the Punic Wars, 264 to 146 B.C.E. Rome’s wars with Carthage are called the Punic Wars.The First Punic War fought at sea.Rome took over the Island of Sicily.
10 The Second Punic War It started 23 years later. Carthaginians decided to attack Italy.Hannibal a brilliant Carthaginian general marched across the Alps . His troops rode elephants.He fought the Romans for 15 years.
11 HannibalIn 202 B.C.E. Hannibal returned home to defend Carthage against a Roman army.He was defeated in battle.Carthage had to give up Spain along with huge sums of money.
12 What happens Next? For 50 years there is peace. Then Cato, a Roman Senator, demanded the destruction of Carthage.Third Punic war lasted three years and Carthage was burned to the ground.
13 After CarthageRiches and slaves flowed into Rome along with new customs.Many new ideas came from Greece.Greek homes and Greek temples.
14 Expansion During the Final Years of the Republic, 145 to 44 B.C.E. Roman conquests had brought great wealth.More wars that cost money.The Romans resented paying money.Had to put down slave revolts.Rome was crowded.Farmers and laborers did not have jobs.The Republic collapsed.
15 Civil War Between two generals Pompey and Julius Caesar. Both men wanted to control Rome.Pompey had the support of the Roman Senate.
16 Julius Caesar Was told not to enter Italy with his army. He disobeyed. On January 11, 49B.C.E. he entered the city.After three years of fighting he defeated Pompey.Caesar was named dictator for life.
17 Julius Caesar Had a vision of Rome. He started colonies and granted citizenship.On March 15, 44 B.C.E. a group of enemies stabbed Caesar to death.
18 Rome Becomes and Empire, 44 B.C.E. to 14 C.E. Caesar’s murder began a civil war in Rome.Octavian became the absolute ruler of Rome.The Senate gave him the name of Augustus meaning honored.
19 Augustus Augustus encouraged education, art, and literature. He repaired more than 80 ruined temples.Rome had a police force, fire fighters, and library.
20 The Vast Empire Needed a Strong Economy The Romans improved trade routes by building harbors, canals, and roads.Roman coins made trade easier.
21 Pax RomanaUnder Roman rule there was mostly peace for 200 years.