MOTIVATION IS: 4 Motivation is the set of forces that lead people to behave in particular ways.
THE FORCES ARE: 4 THE ENERGY THAT 4 DRIVES PEOPLE INTO 4 ACTION
MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK Experienced need deficiencies Experienced need deficiencies Search for ways to satisfy needs Search for ways to satisfy needs Enactment of behavioral choice (performance) Enactment of behavioral choice (performance) Choice of goal- directed behaviors Choice of goal- directed behaviors Reassessment of need deficiencies Reassessment of need deficiencies Experienced rewards or punishment Experienced rewards or punishment
Need-Based Theories of Motivation 4 The need-based theories of motivation reflect a content perspective in that they attempt to describe what factor or factors motivate behavior. They try to list specific things that motivate behavior.
Early Views of Motivation Power To the extent that individuals want power, this need provides motivation and could, therefore, be considered one of the first approaches to understanding motivated behavior. Hedonism –The idea that people seek pleasure and comfort and try to avoid pain and discomfort.
Scientific Management Approach 4 Scientific Management –Associated with the work of Frederick Taylor. –Assumed that employees are motivated by MONEY. –Introduced the idea of “PIECE RATE pay.”
Human Relations Approach 4 Human Relations Approach –Arose from the Hawthorne studies. –Suggested that people are motivated by things other than money; in particular, employees are motivated by and respond to their social environment at work. –. –Favorable attitudes, such as job satisfaction, were presumed to result in employee improved performance.
Need Theories of Motivation 4 The basic premise of need theories, consistent with the motivation framework introduced earlier, is that humans are motivated primarily by deficiencies in one or more important needs or need categories.
The Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Esteem Affiliation Physiological Security
ERG Theory 4 ERG Theory –Represents an extension and refinement of the need hierarchy theory. –The ERG theory describes Existence, Relatedness, and Growth needs. –The ERG theory suggests that if people become Frustrated trying to satisfy one set of needs, they will Regress back to the previously satisfied set of needs.
The Dual-Structure Theory 4 The Traditional View SatisfactionDissatisfaction Herzberg’s View Motivation Factors Satisfaction No Satisfaction Hygiene Factors DissatisfactionNo Dissatisfaction
The Dual-Structure Theory 4 Motivation Factors Hygiene Factors - Achievement - Recognition - The Work Itself - Responsibility - Advancement - Supervision - Working Conditions - Pay and Job Security - Company Policies - Relationships
Need for Achievement 4 Most frequently associated with the work of David McClelland. 4 The need for Achievement is the desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than in the past.
Characteristics of HIGH Need Achievers Tend to Set Moderately Difficult Goals and Make Moderately Risky Decisions Want Immediate, Specific Feedback on Their Performance Have a preoccupation With Work Assume Personal Responsibility for Getting Things Done
The Need for Affiliation 4 Need for human Companionship. 4 Individuals with a high need for affiliation tend to want reassurance and approval from others and usually are genuinely concerned about others’ feelings. 4 People with a high need for affiliation often work in jobs with a lot of interpersonal contact.
The Need for Power 4 The desire to control the resources in one’s environment. 4 People with a high need for power can be successful managers if three conditions are met: –They must seek power for the betterment of the organization rather than for their own interests.
Three Conditions (continued) –They must have a fairly low need for affiliation (fulfilling a personal need for power may well alienate others in the workplace). –They need plenty of self-control to curb their desire for power when it threatens to interfere with effective organizational or interpersonal relationships.
Summary 4 Need Theories focus on the DRIVERS of behavior 4 Need Structures and Hierarchies 4 To What Extent are they Culture Bound???