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MOTIVATION Team Coconut.

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Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION Team Coconut."— Presentation transcript:

1 MOTIVATION Team Coconut

2 Motivation The INTERNAL and/or EXTERNAL forces that arouse enthusiasm and persistence in a person to pursue a certain course of action Employee motivation affects productivity, and part of a manager’s job is to channel motivation to accomplish the organization’s goals. The study of motivation helps us understand what prompts people to initiate action, what influences their choice of action, & why they persist in that action over time.

3 Simple Model of Human Motivation
People have basic needs Needs motivate specific behavior to fulfill those needs If successful, feel rewarded Feedback tells if successful in fulfilling needs

4 Two Types of Rewards INTRINSIC
Satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular action EXTRINSIC Rewards given by another person, typically a manager, and include promotions, pay increases, and bonuses They originate externally, is a result of pleasing others

Traditional Approach Human Relations Approach Human Resource Approach Contemporary Approach

6 Traditional Approach HIGH PERFORMANCE
Work of Frederick W. Taylor on Scientific Management and Efficiency HIGH PERFORMANCE The ECONOMIC MAN – People will work harder for higher pay

People were paid based on the quantity & quality of their work

8 Human Relations Approach
A more “social perspective” on employees The Hawthorne studies showed showed that non-economic rewards such as congenial work groups that met social needs seemed more important than money as a motivator. HIGH PERFORMANCE

9 Human Relations Approach
Workers were studied as people and the concept of the “Social Man” emerged

10 Human Resource Approach
Extends the knowledge of economic man and social man to introduce the concept of the WHOLE PERSON The work by McGregor argues that: People want to do a good job; and, Work is as natural as and healthy as play Social Man Economic Man WHOLE PERSON

11 Human Resource Approach
Assumes EMPLOYEES ARE COMPETENT and can MAKE MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS HIGH PERFORMANCE Basis for contemporary perspective on employee motivation.

12 Contemporary Approach
Consists of 3 Types of Theories Content Theories Provide insights into the needs of people in organizations and help managers understand how needs can be satisfied in the workplace

13 Contemporary Approach
Consists of 3 Types of Theories Content Theories Process Theories Content with the thought processes that influence behavior and focus on how employees seek rewards in work circumstances

14 Contemporary Approach
Consists of 3 Types of Theories Content Theories Process Theories Reinforcement Theories Focus on teaching employees desired work behaviors.

15 Content Perspectives on Motivation
Hierarchy of Needs Theory ERG Theory Two Factor Theory Acquired Needs Theory

16 Hierarchy Needs Theory
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs, existing in a hierarchical order.

17 Hierarchy Needs Theory
What does this hierarchy of needs say?

18 Hierarchy Needs Theory
In the organizational setting, this includes…. Deals with the most basic human needs, e.g.,… The 1st Level is… In the organizational setting, these needs include…

19 Hierarchy Needs Theory
Needs for a safe & secure physical & emotional environment free from threats of violence. In the workplace, safety needs are for safe jobs, fringe benefits, & job security. The 2nd Level of Needs is…

20 Hierarchy Needs Theory
The desire to be ACCEPTED by one’s peers, have friends, be part of a group, & be loved On the job, it is the desire for good relationships w/ co-workers, participation in a work group, & a positive relationship w/ supervisors The 3rd Level of Needs is…

21 Hierarchy Needs Theory
A desire for a positive self-image & the need to receive attention, recognition & appreciation from others The 4th Level of Needs is… A desire for recognition, increased responsibility, high status, & credit for contributions

22 Hierarchy Needs Theory
Represents the need for self-fulfillment—developing one’s full potential, increasing one’s competence, & becoming a better person The Highest Level of Needs is… Providing opportunities to grow, encouraging creativity, & providing training for challenging assignments & advancement

23 Hierarchy Needs Theory
The lower order needs take priority & must be satisfied first.

24 Hierarchy Needs Theory
Once a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next higher need is activated. If a lower-level need ceases to be satisfied, however, it will re-emerge and take precedence over higher order needs until it is satisfied.

25 ERG Theory The ERG theory was developed by Clayton Alderfer. It simplifies Maslow’s hierarchy of needs & responds to criticisms of its lack of empirical verification.

26 Need for physical well being
ERG Theory Need for physical well being

27 Need for satisfactory relationships with others
ERG Theory Need for satisfactory relationships with others

28 ERG Theory Focuses on the dev’t of human potential & the desire for personal growth & increased competence

29 ERG Theory This theory is similar to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs because both are hierarchical & presume individuals move up the hierarchy one need at a time

30 ERG Theory FRUSTRATION-REGRESSION Principle: Failure to meet higher order need may trigger regression to an already fulfilled lower order need

31 ERG Theory WORKERS THEREFORE MAY MOVE UP & DOWN THE HIERARCHY DEPENDING ON THEIR ABILITY TO SATISFY NEEDS Frustration-regression Principle: A worker who cannot fulfill a need for personal growth may revert to a lower order social need & redirect his/her efforts toward making a lot of money

32 ERG Theory Many companies find that by creating a humane workplace that allows a balance bet. work & personal life is a GREAT HIGH-LEVEL MOTIVATOR

33 ERG Theory Many companies find that by creating a humane workplace that allows a balance bet. work & personal life is a GREAT HIGH-LEVEL MOTIVATOR Making work fun plays a role in creating this balance; it relieves stress & enables people to feel more “whole”

34 Two Factor Theory Frederick Herzberg asserted that work characteristics associated with DISSATISFACTION were different from those connected with SATISFACTION. This prompted the idea that TWO different FACTORS influenced work motivation and an employee’s behavior at work.

35 Two Factor Theory When HYGIENE FACTORS are poor, work is dissatisfying. GOOD hygiene factors remove dissatisfaction, but they do not cause satisfaction or motivation. Instead, employees are neutral towards work

36 Two Factor Theory The Manager’s role: Provide hygiene factors to meet basic needs and use motivators to meet high-level to propel employees toward achievement and satisfaction When MOTIVATION FACTORS are present, workers are highly motivated and satisfied. The absence of motivating factors removes satisfaction, but does not cause dissatisfaction. Instead, employees are neutral toward work.

37 Applied Needs Theory David McClelland proposes in this theory that certain types of needs are ACQUIRED or LEARNED during an individuals lifetime. People are not born with these needs, but may learn them through their life experiences.

38 Applied Needs Theory The desire to achieve something difficult, attain success, master complex tasks, & surpass other Need for Achievement Need for Affiliation Need for Power The desire to influence or control others, be responsible for others, & have authority over others. The desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict, & establish warm friendships.

39 Parallels Among Need Theories of Motivation

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