2 MotivationThe INTERNAL and/or EXTERNAL forces that arouse enthusiasm and persistence in a person to pursue a certain course of actionEmployee motivation affects productivity, and part of a manager’s job is to channel motivation to accomplish the organization’s goals.The study of motivation helps us understand what prompts people to initiate action, what influences their choice of action, & why they persist in that action over time.
3 Simple Model of Human Motivation People have basic needsNeeds motivate specific behavior to fulfill those needsIf successful, feel rewardedFeedback tells if successful in fulfilling needs
4 Two Types of Rewards INTRINSIC Satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular actionEXTRINSICRewards given by another person, typically a manager, and include promotions, pay increases, and bonusesThey originate externally, is a result of pleasing others
5 FOUNDATIONS OF MOTIVATION Traditional ApproachHuman Relations ApproachHuman Resource ApproachContemporary Approach
6 Traditional Approach HIGH PERFORMANCE Work of Frederick W. Taylor on Scientific Management and EfficiencyHIGH PERFORMANCEThe ECONOMIC MAN – People will work harder for higher pay
7 Traditional Approach HIGH PERFORMANCE LED TO THE INCENTIVE PAY SYSTEMS People were paid based on the quantity & quality of their work
8 Human Relations Approach A more “social perspective” on employeesThe Hawthorne studies showed showed that non-economic rewards such as congenial work groups that met social needs seemed more important than money as a motivator.HIGH PERFORMANCE
9 Human Relations Approach Workers were studied as people and the concept of the “Social Man” emerged
10 Human Resource Approach Extends the knowledge of economic man and social man to introduce the concept of the WHOLE PERSONThe work by McGregor argues that:People want to do a good job; and,Work is as natural as and healthy as playSocial ManEconomic ManWHOLE PERSON
11 Human Resource Approach Assumes EMPLOYEES ARE COMPETENT and can MAKE MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONSHIGH PERFORMANCEBasis for contemporary perspective on employee motivation.
12 Contemporary Approach Consists of 3 Types of TheoriesContent TheoriesProvide insights into the needs of people in organizations and help managers understand how needs can be satisfied in the workplace
13 Contemporary Approach Consists of 3 Types of TheoriesContent TheoriesProcess TheoriesContent with the thought processes that influence behavior and focus on how employees seek rewards in work circumstances
14 Contemporary Approach Consists of 3 Types of TheoriesContent TheoriesProcess TheoriesReinforcement TheoriesFocus on teaching employees desired work behaviors.
15 Content Perspectives on Motivation Hierarchy of Needs TheoryERG TheoryTwo Factor TheoryAcquired Needs Theory
16 Hierarchy Needs Theory Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs, existing in a hierarchical order.
17 Hierarchy Needs Theory What does this hierarchy of needs say?
18 Hierarchy Needs Theory In the organizational setting, this includes….Deals with the most basic human needs, e.g.,…The 1st Level is…In the organizational setting, these needs include…
19 Hierarchy Needs Theory Needs for a safe & secure physical & emotional environment free from threats of violence.In the workplace, safety needs are for safe jobs, fringe benefits, & job security.The 2nd Level of Needs is…
20 Hierarchy Needs Theory The desire to be ACCEPTED by one’s peers, have friends, be part of a group, & be lovedOn the job, it is the desire for good relationships w/ co-workers, participation in a work group, & a positive relationship w/ supervisorsThe 3rd Level of Needs is…
21 Hierarchy Needs Theory A desire for a positive self-image & the need to receive attention, recognition & appreciation from othersThe 4th Level of Needs is…A desire for recognition, increased responsibility, high status, & credit for contributions
22 Hierarchy Needs Theory Represents the need for self-fulfillment—developing one’s full potential, increasing one’s competence, & becoming a better personThe Highest Level of Needs is…Providing opportunities to grow, encouraging creativity, & providing training for challenging assignments & advancement
23 Hierarchy Needs Theory The lower order needs take priority & must be satisfied first.
24 Hierarchy Needs Theory Once a need is satisfied, it declines in importance and the next higher need is activated.If a lower-level need ceases to be satisfied, however, it will re-emerge and take precedence over higher order needs until it is satisfied.
25 ERG TheoryThe ERG theory was developed by Clayton Alderfer. It simplifies Maslow’s hierarchy of needs & responds to criticisms of its lack of empirical verification.
26 Need for physical well being ERG TheoryNeed for physical well being
27 Need for satisfactory relationships with others ERG TheoryNeed for satisfactory relationships with others
28 ERG TheoryFocuses on the dev’t of human potential & the desire for personal growth & increased competence
29 ERG TheoryThis theory is similar to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs because both are hierarchical & presume individuals move up the hierarchy one need at a time
30 ERG TheoryFRUSTRATION-REGRESSION Principle: Failure to meet higher order need may trigger regression to an already fulfilled lower order need
31 ERG TheoryWORKERS THEREFORE MAY MOVE UP & DOWN THE HIERARCHY DEPENDING ON THEIR ABILITY TO SATISFY NEEDSFrustration-regression Principle: A worker who cannot fulfill a need for personal growth may revert to a lower order social need & redirect his/her efforts toward making a lot of money
32 ERG TheoryMany companies find that by creating a humane workplace that allows a balance bet. work & personal life is a GREAT HIGH-LEVEL MOTIVATOR
33 ERG TheoryMany companies find that by creating a humane workplace that allows a balance bet. work & personal life is a GREAT HIGH-LEVEL MOTIVATORMaking work fun plays a role in creating this balance; it relieves stress & enables people to feel more “whole”
34 Two Factor TheoryFrederick Herzberg asserted that work characteristics associated with DISSATISFACTION were different from those connected with SATISFACTION.This prompted the idea that TWO different FACTORS influenced work motivation and an employee’s behavior at work.
35 Two Factor TheoryWhen HYGIENE FACTORS are poor, work is dissatisfying. GOOD hygiene factors remove dissatisfaction, but they do not cause satisfaction or motivation. Instead, employees are neutral towards work
36 Two Factor TheoryThe Manager’s role: Provide hygiene factors to meet basic needs and use motivators to meet high-level to propel employees toward achievement and satisfactionWhen MOTIVATION FACTORS are present, workers are highly motivated and satisfied. The absence of motivating factors removes satisfaction, but does not cause dissatisfaction. Instead, employees are neutral toward work.
37 Applied Needs TheoryDavid McClelland proposes in this theory that certain types of needs are ACQUIRED or LEARNED during an individuals lifetime.People are not born with these needs, but may learn them through their life experiences.
38 Applied Needs TheoryThe desire to achieve something difficult, attain success, master complex tasks, & surpass otherNeed for AchievementNeed for AffiliationNeed for PowerThe desire to influence or control others, be responsible for others, & have authority over others.The desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict, & establish warm friendships.