2 Motivation Three reasons to learn motivation: To motivate others. To understand how others are trying to motivate you.To enable you to better participate in your own motivation.3
3 Motivation and Needs* Need — Some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. Remain unchanged over lifetime.* Unsatisfied needs create tensions.* Motivation — willingness of a person to exert high levels of effort to satisfy some individual need or want.4
4 Motivation Why do managers need to know about motivation? Why do workers need to know about motivation?Can people learn to need needs?5
5 *** Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory Begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become activeSelf-actualization needsNeed to live up to one’sfullest and unique potentialEsteem needsNeed for self-esteem,achievement, competence,and independence; need forrecognition and respect from othersBelongingness and love needsNeed to love and be loved, to belongand be accepted; need to avoidloneliness and alienationSafety needsNeed to feel that the world is organized andpredictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stablePhysiological needsNeed to satisfy hunger and thirst(* Organizational factor of PAY for work)
6 Alderfer’s ERG TheoryExistence needs — the need to fulfill physical and material human wants, like food, water, pay, decent working conditions, and safety-security factors.All needs are operative at one timeGrowthRelatednessExistence15
7 Alderfer’s ERG TheoryRelatedness needs — the need to maintain relationships with others.Growth needs — a combination of the desire for self-esteem and the desire for self-realization.16
8 Herzberg and Motivation * Hygiene, or maintenance, factors — facets of the work environment that need to be present in order to make the job at least minimally acceptable.* Motivators — facets of the work that actually give people a reason to perform in their work and grow.17
9 Herzberg and Motivation Hygiene factors range from causing dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction.Motivators range from causing satisfaction to no satisfaction.In Herzberg’s theory, no satisfaction (an absence of satisfaction) is not the same as dissatisfaction.cont.18
10 Herzberg and Motivation *** Hygiene Factors: ***(Job Dissatisfaction)Quality of supervision.Company rules and politics.Interpersonal relations with superiors, subordinates, and peersSalary and certain benefits.Working conditions.Motivators:(Job Satisfaction)Achievement.Recognition.The job itself.Growth and advancement.Responsibility.Feedback.19
11 McGregor’s Theory X & Y Theory X Theory Y Managers are pessimistic about workers’ capabilities.Managers believe people dislike work, seek to avoid responsibility, and are not ambitious.Employees must be closely supervised.Theory YManagers are more optimistic about workers’ capabilities.Managers believe people enjoy work, willingly accept responsibility, exercise self-control, have the capacity to innovate, and work is as natural as play.
12 McClelland’s Needs Theory Need for Approval – receiving official consent or confirmation* Need for Achievement – feeling that you’ve accomplished a goalNeed for Competence – the state of being adequate or will qualified: possessing sufficient ability for a task* Need for Power – the ability or capacity to perform or act effectively; strength or force exerted or capable of being exerted6
13 Goal Setting TheoryA goal is what a person tries to attain, accomplish, or achieve.Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended.A specific hard goal that is understood and accepted by the individual acts as an internal stimulus.Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best.”The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus.Feedback is critical and acts to guide behavior.
14 Equity TheoryPeople seek equity between what they put into a job and what they get out of a job.If they put more in than they get out, they will start to work less or try to get more out.If they get more out than they put in, they will start to work harder.23
15 Equity Theory of Motivation If an imbalance is perceived, what could be done?Change the inputs.Change the outcomes.Look at another measurement.Change one’s self-perception.Choose a different reference point.Choose to leave.
16 Behavior Modification * Behavior modification — the influencing of behavior through the use of positive or negative reinforcement techniques.* Positive reinforcement — encouraging the repetition of behavior.Negative Reinforcement – rewarding by taking away uncomfortable consequences.cont.20
17 Behavior Modification Escape and avoidance — to elude or avoid something.Extinction — the elimination of behavior.* Punishment — a penalty imposed for wrongdoing.21
18 Hunter’s TheoryLevel of concern — holding people accountable for their actions.Success — people are motivated to perform acts they are successful at.People will perform acts they are not successful at if they are learning and seeing progress.cont.25
19 Expectancy Theory Effort Reward PerformanceRewardNeed Satisfaction123The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. The theory focuses on three relationships:effort-performance relationship.performance-reward relationship.reward-personal goals relationship.
20 Money and Motivation Does money motivate? What can money do to motivate?What can money not do in motivation?cont.28
21 Money and Motivation Money is traditional. Money is tangible. Money is objective.Alternatives to money are often subjective.Money is symbolic.29