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Microsoft ® PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Organizational Behavior SEVENTH EDITION Gregory Moorhead and Ricky W. Griffin
Chapter 5 Need-Based Perspectives on Motivation
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.3 Learning Objectives Explain the concept of needs and describe the basic motivational process. Describe several historical perspectives on motivation. Discuss important need theories of motivation. Discuss Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation. Identify and summarize three other important individual needs. Describe parallels among the need theories.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.4 The Nature of Motivation Motivation and Its Importance –Motivation is the set of forces that lead people to behave in particular ways. –Motivation is important in organizations because, in conjunction with ability and environment, it determines performance. P = M + A + E P=Performance M=Motivation (must want to do the job) A=Ability (must be able to do the job) E=Environment (must have the resources to do the job)
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 Figure 5.1 The Motivational Framework
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.6 Needs and Motives in Organizations A Need –Something a person requires or wants. Primary Needs –The basic physical requirements of life (e.g., food, water, and shelter).
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.7 Needs and Motives in Organizations [continued] Secondary Needs –Requirements learned from the environment and culture in which a person lives (e.g., needs for achievement, autonomy, power, order, affiliation, and understanding). Motive –A person’s reason for choosing one behavior from among several choices. Motives are derived from needs in that most behaviors are undertaken to satisfy one or more needs.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.8 Historical Perspectives on Motivation Early Views of Motivation Need for Power –To the extent that individuals want power, this need provides motivation and could be considered one of the first approaches to understanding motivated behavior. The Concept of Hedonism –The idea that people seek pleasure and comfort and try to avoid pain and discomfort initially dominated thinking on motivation. –Hedonism could not explain the motivation for other behaviors (e.g., behaviors that were risky and charitable).
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.9 The Scientific Management Approach Scientific Management –Associated with the work of Frederick Taylor. –Assumed that employees are motivated solely by money. –Introduced the concepts of standardized work methods and piece-rate pay.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.10 The Human Relations Approach Human Relations Perspective –Arose from the Hawthorne studies. –Suggested that people are motivated by more than money. –Employees are motivated by and respond to their social environment at work. –Favorable attitudes, such as job satisfaction, were presumed to result in improved employee performance.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 Need Theories of Motivation Need (Content) Theories –The basic premise is that humans are motivated primarily by deficiencies in one or more important needs or need categories. –Attempted to identify and categorize needs as the content, or substance, of what motivates behavior. –The best known need theories are Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Alderfer’s ERG (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth) theory.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.12 The Hierarchy of Needs Developed in the 1940s by psychologist Abraham Maslow who believed: –People have an innate desire to satisfy a given set of needs. –These needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance, with the most basic needs at the foundation of the hierarchy. –Each need level must be satisfied before the level above it becomes important. –Escalation up the hierarchy continues until the self- actualization needs become the primary motivators.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.13 The Hierarchy of Needs: Deficiency Needs Physiological (food, sex, and air) –Adequate wages, ventilation, and comfortable temperatures and working conditions are measures taken to satisfy this most basic level of need. Security (safety and security) –Security needs can be satisfied by job continuity, a fair grievance system, and an adequate insurance and retirement system. Belongingness (love, affection, and acceptance) –Managers can help satisfy these needs by fostering a sense of group identity and interaction among employees.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14 The Hierarchy of Needs: Growth Needs Esteem Needs –Encompass needs for a positive self-image, self-respect, and respect by others. –These needs are met partially by job titles, choice offices, merit pay increases, awards, and other forms of recognition. Self-Actualization Needs –Achieved when people meet their full potential. –These intrinsic needs are the hardest to understand or assess and the most difficult to satisfy.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 Figure 5.2 The Hierarchy of Needs
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.16 ERG Theory: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth ERG Theory –Represents Alderfer’s extension and refinement of Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. –Existence needs are basic to human survival. –Relatedness needs encompass the need to relate to others. –Growth needs are related to self-esteem and actualization. –The ERG theory suggests that a person frustrated in trying to satisfy one set of needs will regress back to the level of a previously satisfied set of needs.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.17 Figure 5.3 The ERG Theory
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.18 The Dual-Structure Theory Frederick Herzberg conceptualized motivation as consisting of motivation factors and hygiene factors. Motivation Factors –Are intrinsic to the work itself (e.g., achievement and recognition) and can cause motivation and satisfaction. Hygiene Factors –Are extrinsic to the work itself (e.g., pay and job security). These factors do not necessarily lead to satisfaction and, if inadequate, these factors can lead to dissatisfaction.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.19 Figure 5.4 The Dual- Structure Theory of Motivation
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.20 Evaluation of the Dual-Structure Theory Criticisms of the Theory: –The theory is “method bound.” Follow-up studies using content methodology generally supported the theory. Studies using other methods yielded different results. –The original sample is not representative. –The theory fails to account for individual differences. –Factors can affect either or both structures. –The theory does not define the relationship between satisfaction and motivation. –The dual-structure framework varies across cultures.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.21 Other Important Needs: The Need for Achievement Need for Achievement (David McClelland) –The need for achievement is the desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than in the past. Characteristics of High-Need Achievers –Tend to set moderately difficult goals and make moderately risky decisions. –Want immediate, specific feedback on their performance. –Have a preoccupation with work. –Assume a personal responsibility for getting things done.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.22 Other Important Needs: The Need for Achievement [continued] Consequences of Achievement –Achievers fail to advance to top management levels due to: Failure to learn to delegate. No immediate feedback. Decisions are more low or high risk. Achievement and Economic Development –McClelland’s research on the need for achievement at the societal level attempted to correlate high need for achievement with national prosperity. High achievement needs were equated with entrepreneurial success.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.23 Other Important Needs: The Need for Affiliation Affiliation and Individuals –Affiliation is the need for human companionship. –Individuals with a high need for affiliation tend to want reassurance and approval from others and usually are genuinely concerned about others’ feelings. –Persons with a high need for affiliation often work in jobs with a lot of interpersonal contact.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.24 Other Important Needs: The Need for Power Power –Is the desire to control the resources in one’s environment. People with a high need for power can be successful managers if: –They seek power for the betterment of the organization rather than for their own interests. –They have a fairly low need for affiliation (fulfilling a personal need for power may well alienate others in the workplace). –They have the self-control to curb their desire for power when it threatens to interfere with effective organizational or interpersonal relationships.
Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.25 Figure 5.5 Parallels Among the Need-Based Perspectives on Motivation
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