Presentation on theme: "World Religions Monotheism belief in one god Most religions today believe this way Polytheism belief in many gods."— Presentation transcript:
World Religions Monotheism belief in one god Most religions today believe this way Polytheism belief in many gods
What is religion? An explanation of the origins and purpose of humans and their role on earth A belief in the existence of a higher power, spirits, or gods Rituals, festivals, rites of passage, and cultural landscapes
Early Humans Hunter-gatherers Hunter-gatherers Lived in isolated groups. Lived in isolated groups. Developed spiritual beliefs as a means of understanding the natural world and its phenomena.
Early Civilization Agriculture - large settled communities Writing - recording of spiritual beliefs, passed down Indigenous beliefs began to fade; modern world religions developed.
Common Beliefs of Early Humans Hunting rituals - expressed reverence and respect for creatures killed for survival Animism - spirits inhabit all people, creatures, and things and play a part in the world Shamanism - centered on one individual who is spiritual leader of community All are still found in parts of the modern world.
Diffusion of Religions Relocation (diffusion through migration) Expansion (diffusion through a snowballing effect) o hierarchical (diffusion through key leaders) o contagious (widespread diffusion) Missionaries - Individuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion
Distribution of Religions Universalizing religions –Christianity 2 billion adherents –Islam 1.3 billion adherents –Buddhism 365 million adherents Ethnic religions –Hinduism 97% of India’s population –Other ethnic religions Confucianism, Daoism, Shintoism, Judaism and Animism
Hinduism India’s major religion no known founder main beliefs: –polytheism –caste system-hereditary social system, enforced by law, based on occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. –karma- action and subsequent reaction –reincarnation-literally "to be made flesh again“ when Enlightenment is reached. Vedas Hinduism’s oldest holy texts
Siddhartha Gautama - Buddha Indian born in warrior caste attained enlightenment & given the title of Buddha founder of Buddhism religion that broke away from Hinduism main beliefs: –polytheism –reincarnation –the Four Noble Truths- suffering –Eightfold Path- instrument of discovery –Middle Way- practice of non-extremism –nirvana-state of perfect peace Sutras holy texts in Buddhism
Confucius (Confucianism) Chinese philosopher ethical system based on the teachings of Confucius main beliefs: –social and civic responsibility –Five Relationships- juniors to seniors, parents to children, etc. Analects text that contains the words and acts of Confucius
sayings from Confucious Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it. In a country well governed, poverty is something to be ashamed of. In a country badly governed, wealth is something to be ashamed of. Silence is a true friend who never betrays http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/c/confucius.html
Taoism (Daoism) Lao-Zi (604-531? BCE) (also Lao Tse) teachings: Tao Te Ching dao (tao) = “the way” or “the path” Live in harmony with nature Values: simplicity, compassion, humility
Shintoism distinctive ethnic religion of Japan forces of nature are divine (Sun, Moon, rivers, trees, mountains, and more) official state religion of Japan 1860s-WWII more than 80,000 shrines in Japan
Judaism Jewish Religion founded by Abraham main beliefs: –monotheism ( world’s 1st ) –Jews are God’s chosen people Ten Commandments –a list of religious and moral guidelines –foundation of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abraham Middle Eastern prophet founder of Judaism Jerusalem Judaism’s, Christianity, and Islam’s holy city Torah Judaism’s holy book written by Moses
Jesus (Christianity) founder of Christianity executed by the Jewish leadership for creating the split between Christianity and Judaism religion that broke away from Judaism main beliefs: –Ten Commandments –monotheism –Jesus is the son of God –resurrection of the dead Bible Christianity’s holy book made up of 2 parts: –Old Testament (Jewish text) –New Testament (lives and teachings of Jesus and his followers) Church of the Holy Sepulcher Jerusalem
Muhammad (Islam) Arab warrior and prophet founder of Islam religion that began in modern-day Saudi Arabia followers of Islam are called Muslims main beliefs: –monotheism –Muhammad is God’s greatest and last prophet –believe that Jesus was a prophet, not as the son of God) –Five Pillars Qur’an Islam’s holy book contains the teachings of Muhammad Mecca Muhammad’s birthplace Islam’s holiest city Ka’bah- temple of Abraham