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River Civilizations. Questions that need to be answered. (essential questions)  Why would people move around rivers?  What did they consider technology?

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Presentation on theme: "River Civilizations. Questions that need to be answered. (essential questions)  Why would people move around rivers?  What did they consider technology?"— Presentation transcript:

1 River Civilizations

2 Questions that need to be answered. (essential questions)  Why would people move around rivers?  What did they consider technology?  Why do some civilizations fail?  What would have happened if the Chinese didn’t invent things?  What made religion spread?  Why did people shape their lives around religion?

3 geography  the study of the earth and its inhabitants  physical geography had a major impact on the world’s early settlements

4 prehistory  time period before writing  important developments that led to the forming of small villages: agriculture domestication of animals

5 civilization  a complex culture with five characteristics: advanced cities advanced technology complex institutions  government  organized religion  education record keeping specialized workers

6 Mesopotamia  land near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (mostly modern-day Iraq)  includes the land of Sumer site of the world’s 1st civilization invented writing (cuneiform)

7 empire  a political unit in which a number of different peoples or nations are controlled by a single nation

8 Hammurabi (c. 1810 - c. 1750 BC)  king of Babylon (Mesopotamian city)  developed one of the world’s first law codes  Eye for an eye

9 Phoenicia (1500-500 BC)  located along the Mediterranean coast (modern-day Lebanon)  expert sailors  developed a large trading network  developed the alphabet

10 Egypt  civilization that developed along the Nile River in North Africa  Used symbols to write- Hieroglyphics  ruler was a god-king called a pharaoh  some early pharaohs were buried in giant pyramids  Egyptian civilization lasted about 3000 years



13 Indus River Valley (India)  India’s 1st civilization developed along the Indus and Ganges Rivers  Has grown to over 1 billion people

14 China  China’s 1st civilization developed along the Huang (Yellow) River  Chinese government became dominated by dynasties  Has grown to over 1 billion people

15 dynasty  a series of rulers from a single family

16 Qin Dynasty  unified Chinese culture currency roads measurement language  The people weren't treated well overtaxed

17 Han Dynasty  China’s longest dynasty  created a highly structured society

18 Han Dynasty Also gave us:  Iron technology  The Plow  Wheelbarrow  Seismograph  Compass  ships rudder  Hot air balloon  Embroidery  and the…

19 Silk Road  ancient interconnected trade routes across and around Asia  trade along the Silk Road was a major factor in the development of most of the great ancient civilizations of Asia, Africa, and Europe  Cultural diffusion-sharing between cultures

20 World Religions Monotheism belief in one god Most religions today believe this way Polytheism belief in many gods

21 Hinduism  India’s major religion  no known founder  main beliefs: polytheism- many gods caste system - hereditary social system karma - action and reaction reincarnation - literally "to be made flesh again" Vedas  Hinduism’s oldest holy texts

22 Siddhartha Gautama - Buddha  Indian born in warrior caste  attained enlightenment & given the title of Buddha  founder of Buddhism  religion that broke away from Hinduism  main beliefs: polytheism- many gods reincarnation- come back as something else living the Four Noble Truths - how to obtain happiness and enlightenment Eightfold Path - instrument of discovery Middle Way - practice of non-extremism nirvana - state of perfect peace Sutras  holy texts in Buddhism

23 ConfuciusConfucius (Confucianism)  Chinese philosopher  ethical system based on the teachings of Confucius  main beliefs: social and civic responsibility Five Relationships Analects  text that contains the words and acts of Confucius

24 Judaism  religion of the Jews  founded by Abraham  main beliefs: monotheism ( world’s 1st ) Jews are God’s chosen people  Ten Commandments a list of religious and moral guidelines foundation of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abraham  Middle Eastern prophet  founder of Judaism Jerusalem  Judaism’s, Christianity, and Islam’s holy city Torah  Judaism’s holy book  written by Moses

25 Christianity  Jesus- founder of Christianity  executed by the Jewish leadership for creating the split between Christianity and Judaism  religion that broke away from Judaism  main beliefs: Ten Commandments monotheism Jesus is the son of God resurrection of the dead Bible  Christianity’s holy book  made up of 2 parts: Old Testament (Jewish text) New Testament (lives and teachings of Jesus and his followers) Church of the Holy Sepulcher Jerusalem

26 Paul  Jew who converted to Christianity  Roman citizen  brought Christianity to Europe through missionary travels ( missionary)

27 Muhammad (Islam)  Arab warrior and prophet  founder of Islam  religion that began in modern-day Saudi Arabia  followers of Islam are called Muslims  main beliefs: monotheism- one god Muhammad is God’s greatest and last prophet believe that Jesus was a prophet, not as the son of God) Five Pillars Qur’an  Islam’s holy book  contains the teachings of Muhammad Mecca  Muhammad’s birthplace  Islam’s holiest city  Ka’bah- temple of Abraham

28 Big Ideas  The environment caused the early civilizations to settle around rivers.  The Chinese were inventive and were responsible for major technological advancements that influenced civilizations other than their own.  Each world religion had specific foundations and affected different areas of the world.

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