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UNIT VII: Urban Geo.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT VII: Urban Geo."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT VII: Urban Geo

2 3 basic types of cities: Central places: service centers for local hinterlands Transportation centers: break-of-bulk functions Specialized-function cities: dominated by one activity metropolitan area: continuously built-up urban area suburbs: extensive commuters residential land use

3 primate city: one disproportionately larger city in a country (Ex: Paris, Mexico City, Lagos)
rank-size rule: inverse relationship between size of a city & its urban rank - 2nd largest city = ½ size of biggest

4 Economic Base Theory Basic Sector: businesses dependent upon sales outside the city Non-basic Sector: jobs dependent upon basic sector (grocery store, barber, drycleaners, restaurants) multiplier effect: increase in basic jobs increases non-basic jobs…

5 Megacities: over 10 million
World cities: play a key role in the global economy (London, New York, Tokyo) – financial centers – most have large pops. Megacities: over 10 million – over ½ of 20 largest cities today are in developing world Problems: internal migration, slums, informal economies, poverty, crime, child labor, water, sewage

6 Walter Christaller’s Central Place Theory
nested hexagons show a hierarchal ranking of market areas hinterland: rural area outside urban areas

7 2. range of services: maximum distance consumers travel
* luxury items: longer range 3. Threshold pop.: minimum # of consumers to support a business

8 Central Place Assumptions:
orderly hierarchy places of the same size equally spaced larger cities farther apart

9 Classic Urban Land Use Models:
Concentric Zone Model Sector Model Multiple Nuclei Model

10 created by Ernest Burgess (1920s)
urban land use as concentric rings “intensive” CBD in center… “extensive” suburbs on edge

11 Concentric Zone Weaknesses:
too simple developed only for American cities assumes public transit highways/cars allowed increased mobility

12 Sector Model Homer Hoyt (1939) stated land use patterns defined by “sectoral wedges” “transportation corridors” impacts land use better transport = more expensive land

13 Multiple Nuclei Model Harris & Ullman (1945) see cities as multi-nucleated w/ center & smaller satellite CBD’s on edge applies to newer, faster-growing cities (Miami, L.A.)

14 Inner City “Ghettoes” became overcrowded, expensive, crime-ridden by 1940’s “filtering”: expensive older houses subdivided for low-income families “White Flight”: process of higher income whites moving out of city centers to suburbs low-income public housing

15 Suburbanization “decentralization” of city centers
popularity of automobile “sprawl”: residential neighborhoods away from CBD edge cities: suburbs with their own CBD greenbelts: open space for public use in suburbs

16 Public Policy & Suburbs
Gov’t policies: Highway Acts (1916, 1956) FHA 30-year mortgage (1934) GI Bill (1944) * post-WW II “BABY BOOM” = more families


18 Gentrificationc gentrification: the movement of middle class people into deteriorated areas of city centers begins in rundown “hoods” inner city cheaper than suburbs Urban “revitalization”/”renewal”: “renewing” rotting downtown waterfronts


20 European Cities Latin American Cities
central cities wealthy live in city center higher poverty/crime/ethnic enclaves in suburbs Latin American Cities fastest urban growth in world central plaza wealthy live close to major blvd. near CBD Poor live in outskirts or “disamenity sector” (lack of facilities) “in situ accretion”: transition to slums & squatters


22 African Cities Asian Cities: N. Africa: Islamic architecture
S. Africa: remnants of apartheid (blacks segregated in “townships”) Asian Cities: centered around ports open-air bazaar markets

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