4 Why did he put forward another model? He rejected the idea of concentric zones.He suggested that residential areas took the form of a series of sectors.Sector is a section of an urban area in the shape of a wedge, beginning at the edge of the CBD and gradually widening to the periphery.
5 Significanceecological factors + economic rent concept to explain the land use patternstress on the role of transport routes in affecting the spatial arrangement of the city.both the distance and direction of growth from the city centre are considered.Brings location of industrial and environmental amenity values as determinants in residential locationExample: sectors of high class residential areas tend to grow towards higher grounds, sites with better view, more open space, the homes of influential leaders within the community and existing outlying, smaller settlements.
6 wedge like/ sector arrangement following the axial arrangement of the transport lines diverging from the city centre.found near to railways, bordering the manufacturing / warehousing sectors (the least desirable land).occupied intermediate positions.locate outside the CBD due to land costs and along transport routes to minimize costs of transportation.developed along main transport routes for ease of commuting into the CBDlocated away from areas of heavy polluting industry.found on high grounds (good view),waterfronts not used by industries and homes of community leaders.CBD remains a circular form in the centre.
7 How are sectors developed? Differences in accessibility from outlying districts to the city centreHigh-class housing estates were built along transport routes, e.g. suburban railway line / highway attract accretionary growth of similar residential housing, thus extending the zone out as a sector (ecological factor).A high rent residential district in one sector of the city will migrate outwards by the addition of new belts of housing along its outer arc.Similar land uses attracted other similar land uses, concentrating a function in a particular area and repelling others. This ‘attract and repel’ process led to sector development.
8 How are sectors developed? The growth of the city depends on the direction of the transport route (directional factor)Hoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand according to four factorsMoves from its point of origin near the CBD, along established routes of travel, toward another nucleus of high- rent buildingsWill progress toward high ground or along waterfronts, when these areas are not used for industryWill move along the route of fastest transportationWill move toward open space
9 Sector modelAs high-rent sectors develop, areas between them are filled inMiddle-rent areas move directly next to them, drawing on their prestigeLow-rent areas fill remaining areasMoving away from major routes of travel, rents go from high to lowThere are distinct patterns in today’s cities that echo Hoyt’s modelHe had the advantage of writing later than Burgess — in the age of the automobile
10 Sector modelToday, major transportation arteries are generally freewaysSurrounding areas are often low-rent districtsContrary to Hoyt’s theoryFreeways were imposed on existing urban patternOften built through low-rent areas where land was cheaper and political opposition was less
11 Growth of low-density high-income residential areas in NE NT Palm SpringsRolling Hills / Scenic Heights / VineyardsFairview Park
12 Growth of middle-income residential belt in West Kowloon
14 Yuen LongDescribe the spatial distribution of various residential land uses in Yuen Long.Account for their distribution pattern. Take account of the following factors: transport network, “attract-and-repel” of social groups, land-rent mechanism, difference in relief, historical inertia, government influence.
15 CriticismsHe based his model on housing and neglected other land uses.Areas of low cost housing do occur beside main roads near to the boundaries of most cities.It is too concerned with residential land use and has not paid enough attention to the existence of residential and industrial suburbs in cities.It has paid little attention to the height of buildings and the variation of land use with height.