8 Major Religious Groups CatholicsOrthodoxIslamProtestants
9 Patterns of Ethnic Settlement Facilitated the Conflict and Break-up Slovene/Catholic 91%Croat/Catholic 3%Serb/E Ortho 2%Croat/Catholic 78%Serb/E Ortho 12%Muslims (43.7%)Croats/Catholic (17.3%)Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %)Serb/ E Ortho 63%Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6%Albanian/Muslim 14%Hungarian/Catholic 4%Bosnia: 40% ofurban couplesethnically mixedPatterns of Ethnic SettlementFacilitated the Conflict and Break-up66% Macedonian/E Ortho23% Albanian/Muslim2% Serb/E Ortho4% Turk/Muslim
10 Which is a more appropriate goal? To protect state sovereignty? Borders?To allow all groups to have self-determination and independent nations?
11 Bosnia Geographically it’s in the middle Territory was desirable for its access to the Adriatic Sea and for strategic reasonsIt was an example of a truly multi-ethnic society with no majorityMuslims (43.7%)Croats (17.3%)Serbs (31.4 %)The population consisted of large ethnic groupsLinked to Serbia and CroatiaSerbia and Croatia wanted these people and their lands to join Serbia and Croatia respectively, rather than be in a multi-ethnic Bosnia
12 According to Donnelly why was the genocide not stopped?
13 IRONY OF ETHNIC CLEANSING Ethnic cleansing and mass murder produced ethnically pure territorial unitsultimately produces NEATER maps on which peace settlement could be workedallowing the safe areas to fall got rid of enclaves that cluttered the mapworld leaders denounce ethnic cleansing BUT in the end BACK RESULTS which bring peace
16 BOSNIA Declares independence, too Bosnian Serbs declare an independent Serb state and lay siege to Sarajevo, claiming the city as its capitalYugoslav artillery shell Bosnia/Sarajevo—providing support to Serb irregulars who engage in ethnic cleansing of Bosnia1000 Serbs shells a day hitting Sarajveo3,777 hit in 16 hours on July 23, 1993
17 Women and Elderly Fleeing Srebrenica with UN watching
21 Back to original dilemma… What are the conflicting values?
22 International Role in Yugoslavia Neo-isolationist or Internationalist?Cooperative or Military Interventionist?
23 International Role in Yugoslavia Sept 1991UN arms embargo on YugoslaviaOct 1991Sec’y General sends special envoy (Vance)negotiate a short cease-fireFeb 1992Deploy UNPROFOR (14,000 soldiers)to ensure that areas vacated by Serbian army are protectedassist humanitarian agenciesassist displaced persons in getting home
24 November 1992send UN troops to Macedonia (1st preventive action ever)February 1993establish International Criminal tribunal
25 June 1993increase UNPROFOR sizeauthorize use of force (including air strikes)Feb. 1994NATO authorizes air strikes to deter attacks on civilians in SarajevoApril 1994Contact Group forms to draw up peaceful settlementUS, UK, Germany, France, Russia
26 What guidelines should determine when the U. S What guidelines should determine when the U.S. gets involved in the affairs of other countries?
27 With the rise of Gorbachev and liberalization of relations with USSR Yugoslavia was no longer a crucial link to US foreign policyFear precedent of break-upUS and West was focused on Persian GulfWEST not prepared to deal with conflicting goals: integrity of state v. self determination
29 Ethnic and Religious Make-up Slovenia (West)Slovene/Catholic 91%Croat/Catholic 3%Serb/E Ortho 2%Croatia (West)Croat/Catholic 78%Serb/E Ortho 12%Macedonia (East)66% Macedonian/E Ortho23% Albanian/Muslim2% Serb/E Ortho4% Turk/MuslimSerbia and Montenegro (incorporated Vojvodina and Kosovo) (East)Serb/ E Ortho 63%Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6%Albanian/Muslim 14%Hungarian/Catholic 4%Bosnia and Hercegovina (Central)Muslims (43.7%)Croats/Catholic (17.3%)Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %)