1. Name the seven current countries that made up Yugoslavia. Interactive Notebook: Assignment #1
2.Based on this map, what problems (if any) might you assume will occur? 3.In what areas would you assume problems will occur? Be specific.
Yugoslavia From its creation in 1918 until the country broke apart in the early 1990s, Yugoslavia was a multinational state composed of many ethnic (cultural) and religious groups. Ethnic groups were dissatisfied with their status in the new state, opposed the domination of one ethnic group, the Serbs, and called for greater national and political rights. The country's economy was very unstable.
One U.S. view of the war... “It’s really a tragic problem... The hatred between all three groups – the Bosnians, the Serbs, and the Croatians – is almost unbelievable. It’s almost terrifying, and it’s centuries old. That really is a problem from hell.” - Warren Christopher, Secretary of State under President Clinton
Brief History of the Balkans: Prior to WWI Rivalry between the Austrian Empire and the Ottoman Empire for hundreds of years. But by the 19 th century, the Ottoman Empire was in decline and each of the ethnic groups began to want their own independent state.
“RULE OF THE BALKANS: EVERYTHING FOR MY ETHNIC GROUP AND NOTHING FOR YOURS.” The group on top now governs at the expense of the others; the groups out of power wreak vengeance when the power balance shifts. People see themselves as Serbs, Romanians, or Albanians first and as individuals second. 4.How might this attitude and history have a negative impact on today?
First Yugoslav State June 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serb who wanted Bosnian independence. This sparked WWI and after WWI the Allies created Yugoslavia. Formed at the end of WWI. In 1918 the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes is proclaimed. In 1929 it will be named Yugoslavia.
Most important event of the 20 th century? Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
5.Using the last paragraph on pg. 2 and the first paragraph on pg. 3 in the reading, draw some kind of visual that represents the differences in how each group believed the state should be set up/administered. 6.Then, explain why the differences will lead to problems within the state.
First Yugoslav State BIG challenges: Poor, war scars, diversity. Political Issue: What would this new state look like? Serbs: Wanted strong, centralized state to protect Serb minority populations in other regions. Others: Wanted decentralized state to protect against Serb domination. Solution: A strong, centralized state! Serb preferences won out (this time). Other groups not happy, but try to work together to iron out problems. 7.Out of all the challenges that faced the first Yugoslav state, which one do you think was the most challenging? Explain why.
WWII Hitler invades Yugoslavia in 1941. Forces the royal family into exile. Installs puppet regimes in Serbia and Croatia. Horrific fighting, bitter memories. Yugoslavia begins to be torn apart from the inside (Civil War) by competing states. Italy Germany Romania, etc. “The civil war in Yugoslavia was a very complex conflict. Some fought against the Germans who occupied the country, others allied with them; some fought to bring back the new king who had fled, others fought to set up a new government; village turned on village and neighbor attacked neighbor.”
First President of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito (Marshal Tito) Helps defeat the Germans and established dominance over the other groups fighting over Yugoslavia’s future. Held Yugoslavia together from post WWII until his death in 1980. Communist who set up the new Yugoslavia like the Soviet Union. Six Federations: Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Two autonomous regions both inside Serbia: Kosovo and Vojvodina.
A POPULAR REFRAIN Yugoslavia has: 7 neighbors 6 republics 5 nationalities 4 official languages 3 major religions 2 alphabets 1 dinar (national currency) 8.Name one centrifugal force pulling Yugoslavia apart. 9.Name one centripetal force that united Yugoslavia.
Tito was keeping the country together with strict policies and control over each republic. Repression of anyone who disagreed with him. In 1974 Tito made himself President for life. Dies in 1980. 10. Do you think Tito’s death will create a positive change for Yugoslavia or will it bring about the end of Yugoslavia? Explain.
Slovene/Catholic 91% Croat/Catholic 3% Serb/E Ortho 2% Croat/Catholic 78% Serb/E Ortho 12% Serb/ E Ortho 63% Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6% Albanian/Muslim 14% Hungarian/Catholic 4% Muslims (43.7%) Croats/Catholic (17.3%) Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %) 66% Macedonian/E Ortho 23% Albanian/Muslim 2% Serb/E Ortho 4% Turk/Muslim Patterns of Ethnic Settlement Facilitated the Conflict and Break-up Bosnia: 40% of urban couples ethnically mixed 11. Both Slovenia AND Croatia broke off of Yugoslavia on the same day. Why do you think Yugoslavia (with their Serb influence) put up more of a fight with Croatia?
Yugoslavia Yugoslav Federation was falling apart. Nationalism had once again replaced communism as the dominant force in the Balkans. Slovenia and Croatia break away from Yugoslavia Renewed conflict with Serbia due to break away 12. Why will this reemergence of nationalism end up being the downfall of Yugoslavia?
After Yugoslavia is broken up… Ethnic conflict! Bosnia Kosovo
After the breakup, creating a viable nation was difficult for Bosnia & Herzegovina. Ethnicities: 48% Bosnian Muslim 37% Serb 14% Croats Serbs and Croats engaged in ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims. Thought this would strengthen their case for breaking away from Bosnia & Herzegovina. Would go into villages and round men up. Put them in “detention camps” “Disappeared” them Killed them Bosnia
Dayton Peace Accords Single Bosnia state (country) but divided into three regions: Bosnian Croats (1/4 the land-1/6 the population) Muslims (1/4 the land-1/2 the population) Serbs (1/2 the land-1/3 the population)
After Dayton AccordsBefore the War ETHNIC MIX BEFORE AND AFTER THE WAR
Albanians comprised 90% of the population. After Yugoslavia broke apart, Serbia had claim over the region. Serbia launched a campaign of ethnic cleansing of the Albanian majority. 1.Moved a large amount of military equipment into villages 2.Rounded up all the people in the village. 3.Force people to leave the village. 4.Destroyed the vacated village by fire. Kosovo
TWO PARAGRAPH SUMMARY 13.What factors led up to the violent break- up of the Yugoslav state and what problems occurred after?
Last Question… 14.What do all of these ethnic conflicts that we have looked at in class, have in common? Discuss what patterns you noticed in a two paragraph summary.