Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© James V. Ebrecht 2008 The Yugoslavian Experience Transition from the Communist Bloc to Modern State.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "© James V. Ebrecht 2008 The Yugoslavian Experience Transition from the Communist Bloc to Modern State."— Presentation transcript:

1 © James V. Ebrecht 2008 The Yugoslavian Experience Transition from the Communist Bloc to Modern State

2 Learning Objectives Ethnicity and Ethnic Identity are powerful political forces Ethnicity gives rise to ethnic identity, self determination, nationalism and nation building. Most nations have a component of “ethnic identity” to promote nationalism Nation building is a political process based on common needs and goals rooted in ethnic identity The power of ethnicity can be used to disassemble a political unity © James V. Ebrecht 2008

3 The Balkan Mountains © James V. Ebrecht 2008

4 Balkanization “A small geographic area ( the Balkan region) that could not be successfully organized into one or more stable states due to many ethnicities with long standing antagonisms toward each other” The process by which a state breaks down by conflicts among it’s ethnicities” © James V. Ebrecht 2008


6 World War I Begins in the Balkans with a Serbian assassination of an Austrian, Archduke Ferdinand Ends with a peace treaty that creates an artificial State, Yugoslavia © James V. Ebrecht 2008


8 Eastern Europe – Yugoslavia Experience Created after WWI as a “buffer zone” Artificial country not created by ethnic pride and/or nationalism Integrated Slavic peoples as “Yugo” (South) “Slavia” One border encompassed many peoples, many ethnic loyalties, many religious differences From 1949 to 1980 ruled by Josip (Josef) Broz Tito (Marshal Tito) Strong, Totalitarian Leadership held the country together.

9 Josep “Tito” Broz Arose before and during WWII as a Communist fighting Facism Led partisan groups fighting Germany during WWII Supplied by Allied forces to keep German army busy looking for partisans in Yogoslavia Grew powerful in alliance with Russia © James V. Ebrecht 2008

10 Yugoslavian diversity Six Republics (Bosnia&Hertzegovinia, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia) Five Nationalities (Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrens, Serbs, Slovenes) Four Languages (Croatian, Macedonian, Serbian and Slovene) Three Religions (Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Islam) Two Languages in Roman Alphabet, Two in Cyrillic One Currency - dinar © James V. Ebrecht 2008


12 Balkan Ethnicities © James V. Ebrecht 2008

13 After Josip Tito No strong central government, no experience operating without a dictator Removal of Soviet oversight opened the door for choice Winter Olympics showcased the new Yugoslavia Within 10 years there was war, ethnic cleansing, religious and cultural polarization and irredentism

14 © James V. Ebrecht 2008


16 Ethnic Cleansing Tensions increase due to ethnic issues and growth of nationalism centered on ethnicity Lack of a strong, unified leadership as provided by Tito Rumors of murders by Muslims touch of warfare between Muslims and Christians along ethnic lines Forces migration (ethnic cleansing) follows until UN and US forcibly end the killings © James V. Ebrecht 2008


18 Kosovo A province of Serbia populated with a majority of ethnic Albanians Under Yugoslavia, controlled by the Serbian republic Population since 1946 increased to >75% ethnic Albanians During the breakup 750,000/2,000,000 were displaced to camps in Albania NATO forces withdrawal of all Serb troops and Albanians repatriate Kosovo © James V. Ebrecht 2008

19 Kosovo 2009 Referendum in Kosovo votes overwhelmingly for independence from Serbia Kosovo forms an independent state and secedes from Serbia President Bush recognizes Kosovo followed by Great Britain What about the Serbian claim to the area? Is it really independent or a part of Albania? © James V. Ebrecht 2008

20 Balkan Ethnicities © James V. Ebrecht 2008

21 Current Map Some stability based on religious and cultural affiliations Lingering “war crimes” issues and resentment of the fratricidal behaviors These issues were held in check by a totalitarian regime –What happens after the lid comes off the “melting pot”? –Resemble any other region? What about Kosovo?

Download ppt "© James V. Ebrecht 2008 The Yugoslavian Experience Transition from the Communist Bloc to Modern State."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google