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Ethnic groups in Yugoslavia (1991). Total population: 23 million.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethnic groups in Yugoslavia (1991). Total population: 23 million."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethnic groups in Yugoslavia (1991). Total population: 23 million

2 THE YUGOSLAV CIVIL WAR 1981: During riots in Kosovo, 1,000 Serbs are killed 1987-88: Serb & Croat CP bosses become nationalists June 1991: Slovenia and Croatia declare independence September 1991: Heavy fighting breaks out in ethnic Serb regions of Croatia March 1992: Bosnian government declares independence July 1995: Massacre of at least 8,000 unarmed Bosnians at the UN “Safe Haven” of Srebrenica August 1995: Collapse of the Serb Republic of Krajina November 1995: Dayton Accord leads to NATO occupation of Bosnia 1998-99: Conflict over Kosovo

3 Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) 1.He propagated a “Yugoslav” identity that never caught on. 2.He ONLY allowed pluralism in ethnic “literary societies.” 3.He promised an equalization of regional prosperity levels but could not deliver. 4.He encouraged the mostly Serb officer corps to regard itself as the “guardian of socialism.”

4 The Serb Communist Party boss Slobodan Milosevic redefined himself as a militant nationalist in 1987 and celebrated the 600 th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo in 1989

5 Serbs commemorate the 600 th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo on June 28, 1389

6 The “Republic of Serb Krajina” (1991-95) After Slovenia and Croatia declared independence in June 1991, Serb forces carved out a new para- state by March 1992. Croats and Serbs both engaged in massive ethnic cleansing. Germany recognized Croatia in December 1991. Bosnia declared independence in March 1992, and the fighting spread.

7 Burial on December 18, 1991, of 39 Croat civilians killed in the fighting at Pdravska Slatina

8 Bosnian Serb forces laid siege to Sarajevo from May 2, 1992, to February 26, 1996, or 1,395 days

9 Some of the 3,500 Bosnian Moslems confined by Serbs in a stable in Manjaca, August 1992

10 The Security Council created UNPROFOR in February 1992 to monitor the Serb-Croat cease-fire, but its mission soon expanded (167 of 37,000 troops died in action)

11 Mostar, capital of Herzegovina (the 16 th -century bridge was destroyed by Croatian artillery on November 9, 1993)

12 AREAS OF CONTROL IN BOSNIA, SEPTEMBER 1994 Pink: Bosnian Serb Army Yellow: Croatian Defense Council Green: Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (plus 3 UN “Safe Havens” in east)

13 SREBRENICA MASSACRE, July 1995 The last of the 8,000 bodies recovered were buried in 2010

14 With NATO support, Croatia destroyed the “Republic of Serb Krajina” in August 1995, and Milosovic signed the Dayton Accord with Presidents Izetbegovic and Tudjman in November

15 German troops in the NATO peacekeeping force deployed to Bosnia (Sarajevo, December 1997)

16 Some of the 600,000 Kosovar refugees who fled after the brutal Serb offensive in March 1998

17 NATO bombed Serbia from March through June 1999, destroying both the defense ministry and Chinese embassy in Belgrade

18 By June 1999 U.S. Marines and KFOR occupied Kosovo

19 U.S. State Department Wanted Poster (2000). Slobodan Milosevic died in his cell in The Hague in 2006, and Radovan Karadzic and General Ratko Mladic are now on trial.

20 In 2008 the Kosovo parliament proclaimed its independence, but only the countries in green have recognized it

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