Explain the difference between Direct and Representative Democracy. What city state first introduced democracy and why?
Location of Rome Rome is in modern day Italy Area controlled by Roman Empire
The Roman Republic: 509 B.C.- 27 B.C. Like Athens, Greece; Rome began as a city- state controlled by a king 509 B.C. kings of Rome overthrown and replaced by a form of democracy; a republic Roman Republic: power was held by the citizens who elected officials to represent them – This introduced the idea of representative democracy
Representative Democracy – The people elect officials to represent them – The U.S. is an example of this – Romans divided the powers of the republican govt among different bodies of the govt called branches Branches: divisions of a government – Ex: Executive, Judicial, Legislative
Wait…this all sounds familiar (at least I hope it does) Through the creation of the Republic and branches the Romans established: – Checks and Balances: none of the 3 branches of the Roman Republic could act without the permission or supervision of the other branches – Separation of Powers: the act of spreading a government’s powers among its branches
Social Structure of Romans Patricians: landowners and ruling class – Only group elected to office Plebeians: craftspeople, merchants, small farmers, less wealthy landowners Both groups could vote, only patricians could be officials/elected representative Roman Senate – Select group of 300 patricians elected for life
Equality? Yes and no. By 287 all male Roman citizens were equal under the law However, select patricians and plebeians for a separate ruling class (not very democratic) Wealthy families compete for power leading to disorder
All “good” things come to an end- End of Roman Republic Roman Republic was constantly at war Roman Legions: Rome’s armies that fought to increase Rome’s territory Political rivalries Army allegiance to their general, not Rome Civil War
The Empire Strike Back…Again! Julius Caesar – 49 B.C. Caesar and his Legions seized Rome Caesar becomes Dictator of Rome – Dictator: ruler who assumes sole power over his/her state -marked the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.
Establishment of the Roman Empire 27 B.C.-1453 A.D. Marked the end of democracy in Rome Rome became an autocracy – Autocracy: government ruled by one person Rome would be ruled by an Emperor The Senate lost most of its power Rome continued to conquer territory Emperor Augustus: period of Pax Romana (Roman Peace)-200 years
Hadrian’s Wall 73 miles across the border “Separate Romans from the [Celtic] Barbarians”
Divide and Conquer? Partition of the Roman Empire – Partition: to divide – The empire was partitioned in 286 A.D. – Roman Empire became too large for one man to rule – Partitioned into 2 parts Eastern Empire and Western Empire Byzantine Empire: name given to Rome’s Eastern Empire Constantinople: became the most important city in the East. Would eventually become the capital of the Roman Empire
Fall of the Western Roman Empire Romans had to hold the barbarians of Germany back; strain on military 300 A.D. Roman soldiers removed from German border; Germans move in and conquer last of Western Roman land – No army=bandits and criminals roaming freely
Results of the Fall of the West People were afraid to travel and trade Movement of people, goods, and information slowed Economic growth and learning greatly decreased Western Europe became “backwards” and fell into the Middle Ages
Fall of the East 500-600s German Tribes raid East 600-700s Arab tribes raid East Warfare damaged agriculture and education Empire could not maintain its power, hold or govern the entire Mediterranean world after these invasion Small and weak Constantinople is all that remains
The Final Straw The Ottoman Empire began invading the Eastern Roman Empire in the 1400s The Ottomans were Turkish Muslims 1453: Ottomans capture Constantinople This marks the end of the Roman Empire