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Chapter 4, Section 1 Classical Greece and Rome

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1 Chapter 4, Section 1 Classical Greece and Rome

2 Classical Greece Classical Greece means ancient Greece
Greece flourished from 800 B.C. to 400 A.D. Western culture was greatly influenced by ancient Greece and Rome

3 The Golden Age of Greece
Greece reached its “Golden Age” in the 400’s B.C. During this time, Greece began ruling by a democracy Greece has been called the “cradle of democracy” because we can trace the beginnings of our political system to this time.

4 The Golden Age of Greece
Athens: home of the world’s first democratic constitution All free males over the age of 20 had the right to vote and speak freely

5 The Golden Age of Greece
Athens had many great philosophers. The most well known were Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Socrates and Plato studied human nature. Aristotle wrote powerful works dealing with politics, literature, and ethics. Socrates

6 The Golden Age of Greece
Plato Aristotle

7 The Golden Age of Greece
Conflict During this time, Sparta and Athens wanted to expand their boundaries Sparta – ruled by few nobles and disliked change Athens – open to democracy and new ideas The two city states were constantly fighting. Sparta finally defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War. This greatly weakened Greece.

8 The Golden Age of Greece
300’s B.C. Phillip II of Macedonia and his son, Alexander the Great invaded the northern border of Greece and easily conquered all of it. Alexander went on to create an empire that included Greece, Egypt, Persia and eastward to India. His empire quickly fell apart after his death, but he is credited for spreading Greek culture.

9 The Rise of Rome Rome was settled some time around 1000 B.C.
By 700 B.C. it had evolved into a major city-state that dominated much of the Italian peninsula. Italy was more easily invaded so they developed a strong army. Rome started out as a monarchy, but changed to a republic (people choose their leaders).

10 The Rise of Rome The Roman Republic
Rome was led by two consuls (individuals elected by the people of Rome). The consuls reported to the Senate. The members of the Senate are members for life, and they must own land. This is guaranteed by Roman Law, the foundation for Roman Law is the Twelve Tables.

11 The Rise of Rome The Roman Empire
264 B.C. to 146 B.C. wars transformed the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. People whose countries were conquered by the Roman Empire were given citizenship and equality under Roman Law. Rome began trading with places as far as India & China.

12 The Rise of Rome Under the empire, Senators lost their power to emperors (absolute rulers). Supporters of the Senate killed the great Roman general, Julius Caesar for trying to become the first emperor. This led to a civil war between Caesar supporters and Senate supporters. Caesar’s nephew became the first emperor.

13 The Rise of Rome Caesar’s nephew was named Octavius but he became known as Caesar Augustus. He initiated a period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, which lasted almost 200 years.

14 The Rise of Rome Jesus of Nazareth was born in Palestine, which was under the rule of Caesar Augustus. Jesus carried out his teachings during the Pax Romana. Christianity spread over the Roman world. Emperors, Constantine I and Theodosius, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire.

15 The Rise of Rome After the period of the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire began to decline. Emperor Constantine I moved the capital from Rome to Constantinople on the Black Sea. Plagues were killing people. In the A.D. 400’s Rome’s northern defenses crumbled leaving it open for attack A group of Germanic people came to rule much of Rome, Italy and Europe. The Eastern Roman Empire did not fall to the Germans, it continued on for another 1,000 years.

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