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Research Methodology MGT - 3063 TYPES OF RESEARCH MR. I. MAYURRAN.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Methodology MGT - 3063 TYPES OF RESEARCH MR. I. MAYURRAN."— Presentation transcript:


2 CONTENTS. Definition – Research. Types of Research.
Natural Science Social Science Types of Research. Application Objective Inquiry Mode Research Classification Question Time

3 Research - Definition Business research can be defined as the systematic and objective process of gathering , recording and analyzing data for aid in making business decisions. Putting some light in the unknown areas of knowledge for your enlightenment to that particular area of knowledge The purpose of research is to find a solution to a particular type of problem. Showing the problem a direction towards solution or to understand our reality more clearly. “Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge” Redman and Mory.

4 Natural Science Pure Research Applied Research ANIMAL CARE MEDI CARE

5 Social Science Applied Research Pure Research MARKETING GEOGRAOHY

6 Types of Research 1 Application 2 Objective 3 Inquiry Mode

7 Application of the Research Study
1 1 Application of the Research Study Pure Research Applied Research

8 Pure Research or Fundamental Research
Pure Research is also known as basic or Fundamental research. It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice. Pure research offers solutions to many practical problems Ex: Maslow’s theory of motivation Pure research develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution. Goal: Expand man’s knowledge (Eg :- which genes control social behavior of human beings? )

9 Applied Research or Action Research
Applied Research or Action Research is carried out to find solution to a real life problem requiring an action or policy decision a society or business faces. The researcher attempts to solve a known problem and find answers to specific questions. Aims at  solving specific problems & establishing policy programs that will help to improve social life. Goal: To improve human condition (i.e., improve the world) (e.g., how to care cancers?) High impact examples: computers, transistors, vaccinations

10 Example for Applied Research
A trucking company that is interested in predicting the tonnage of material shipped in the next quarter. Example Predicting the tonnage & determining which variables are good predictors of tonnage for the next quarter. Problem

11 Objectives in Undertaking the Research
2 2 Objectives in Undertaking the Research 2 Descriptive Research Explanatory Research Exploratory Research Causal Research

12 Descriptive Research Usually it forms preliminary study of a research project.  It aims at describe social events, relations and events It provides background information about an event in question It is deal with collecting data and answering questions or interviews or by observation (Survey type research).

13 Example for Descriptive Research
To describe characteristics of relevant groups To estimate the % of units in a specified population exhibiting a certain behavior To determine the degree to which the marketing variables are associated To determine the perceptions of product characteristics To make specific predictions Example for Descriptive Research

14 Explanatory Research or Analytical Research
Analytical Research is primarily concerned with testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationships, by analyzing the facts or information already available. (Cause-Effect). It aims at explaining social relations and events. To build, test or revise a theory.

15 Exploratory Research or Formulative Research
It aims at gaining information about an issue in hand. Objective: to gather  preliminary information that will help define problems and suggest hypotheses. Typical techniques used in exploratory research include Case studies, Observation Historical analysis In-depth interviews Focus Group.

16 Causal Research EXAMPLE
It aims at establishing cause and effect relationship among . The objective of causal research is to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships.. It is appropriate for the following purposes: To understand which variables are the cause (independent variables) and which variables are the effect (dependent variables) of a phenomenon. To determine the nature of relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted. The main method of causal research is experimentation. EXAMPLE

17 3 3 3 Inquiry Mode Quantitative Research Qualitative Research`

18 Aimed at finding out the quality/kind of a particular phenomenon
Qualitative Research ‘Qualitative Research…involves finding out what people think, and how they feel - or at any rate, what they say they think and how they say they feel. This kind of information is subjective. It involves feelings and impressions, rather than numbers’ It is based on methodological principals of phenomenology, symbolic, interactionism. It aims at exploration of social world. Following elements are there Aimed at finding out the quality/kind of a particular phenomenon

19 Quantitative Research
Research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. To collect and analyze data to explain, predict, or control phenomena of interest Describe current conditions Investigate relationships Study causes and effects It is based on methodological principals of  positivism and neo positivism . It adheres to standards of strict research. Statistical analysis is used in it.

20 Other Types of Research
One-time Research – Research confined to a single time period. Longitudinal Research – Research carried on over several time periods. Diagnostic Research – It is also called clinical research which aims at identifying the causes of a problem, frequency with which it occurs and the possible solutions for it. Theory Testing Research - It aims at testing validity of a theory Theory Building Research - To establish and formulate theory Historical Research – The purpose of historical research is to arrive at conclusions concerning trends, causes or effects of past occurrences. This may help in explaining present events and anticipating future events. Conceptual Research - is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or ideas to reinterpret existing ones. Empirical Research - is a data based research which depends on experience or observation alone. It is a data based research with verifiable conclusions.


22 Purpose of The Research – The Reason Why It Was Conducted
Exploratory Describe the ideas & insights. Ex:- Our sales are declining and we don’t know why?. Would people be interested in our new product idea? Descriptive Describe Market Characteristics or Function. What kind of people are buying our product? Who buys our competitor’s product? What features do buyers prefer in our product? Casual Determine Cause & effect relationship. “Will buyers purchase more of our products in a new package? Which of two advertising campaigns is more effective? Based on Purpose

23 Process of The Research – The Way In Which The Data Were Collected And Analyzed
Basic Qualitative Quantitative Types of Question Probing Limited probing Sample Size Small Large Info. Per Respondent Much Varies Researcher Skills Requires, skilled researcher Fewer specialist skills required Types of Analysis Subjective, interpretative Statistical Types of Research Exploratory Descriptive or casual Method Inductive Deductive According to Process

24 According to Outcome Applied Pure
Outcome Of The Research – Whether The Expected Outcome Is The Solution To A Particular Problem Or A More General Contribution To Knowledge. Applied Application in the "real world“. aims to address and answer real-world problems.  Applied research builds on existing basic research. Pure Knowledge for the sake of knowledge. fundamental bases of behavior. considered the foundation of knowledge According to Outcome

25 According to Logic Deductive Inductive
Logic Of The Research – Whether The Research Logic Moves From The General To The Specific Or Vice Versa Theory Hypothesis Observation Confirmation Theory Tentative Hypothesis Pattern Observation According to Logic Deductive Inductive



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